Etiqueta: Museo Británico



9 mar 12

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Se la denomina “Placa del dios-sol” 0 “Placa de Shamash”. Muestra al rey Nabu-Apal-Iddina de Babilonia,(ca. 888 a 855 antes de Cristo ). Su padre era el rey Nabu-Shuma-ukin.

El rey , asistido por el un dios y una diosa aproximándose ante el dios-sol Shamash. en cuya mano derecha  se  precian los atributos de su poder divino: La vara y el nudo mágico con el que “ata” el Destino de los hombres. Sippar, hacia 860-50 a.C.

Museo Británico.ME 91 000.Londres

Bajo él se encuentran los dioses-toro que abren las puertas del Más Allá. El texto narra la historia del templo del dios en Sippar, cuyo culto se había perdido y recobró Appal-Iddina. Esta tablilla, escondida entonces, fue descubierta por el rey Nabopalasar.

El sitio de Sippar antiguo, hoy conocido como Abu Habbah, se encuentra al suroeste de Bagdad.Las excavaciones han revelado una ciudad amurallada con un zigurat pequeño en el centro rodeado por un grupo de edificios públicos.

En 1880 Hormuzd Rassam trabajó en el lugar. Él encontró esta ‘Tabla de Shamash “, que identifica a la ciudad como Sippar y el templo en el que estaba cavando como  dedicado al dios patrón de la ciudad. En los 18 meses siguientes, Rassam excavó alrededor de 170 salas  y  el zigurat y descubrió muchos cilindros inscritos y tablillas (se estima que alrededor de 40-50.000).Estas detallaban sobre todo  los ingresos y las actividades comerciales de los empleados del templo en el período neo-babilonio.

Filed under: ACTUALIDAD,Arqueologia,Arte Antiguo,Ciudades,Curiosidades,Exposiciones,General,H. Próximo Oriente,HISTORIA ANTIGUA,Hombres de la Historia,Magia y ritos antiguos y actuales,MITOLOGÍA,OPINIONES,PERSONAJES,PERSONALÍSIMO

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29 jul 10


Papiro  Rhind   o de Ahmes( h.1550 a.C. sg.Museo Británico)

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Los egipcios, como los babilonios, también trabajaban con fracciones, con partes de la unidad.

Pero lo curioso es que  sólo utilizaban fracciones con numerador la unidad, es decir de la forma: 1/2, 1/3, 1/4, 1/7, 1/15, 1/47…

Cualquier parte de la unidad la expresaban como suma de fracciones de este tipo.

El Papiro  Rhind contiene una tabla de conversión de partes de la unidad a estas fracciones. Es el equivalente con más de 3.000 años de antigüedad de nuestras tablas de multiplicar, sólo que para trabajar con fracciones-

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El Papiro de Ahmes es un documento escrito en un papiro de unos seis metros de longitud y 33 cm de anchura, en un buen estado de conservación, con escritura hierática y contenidos matemáticos. También se le conoce con el nombre de Papiro Rhind. Su contenido se fecha del 2000 al 1800 a. C.

Fue escrito por el escriba Ahmes aproximadamente en 1650 a. C., a partir de escritos de doscientos años de antigüedad, según reivindica Ahmes al principio del texto, aunque resulta imposible saber qué partes del papiro corresponden a estos textos anteriores.

Encontrado en el siglo XIX, entre las ruinas de una edificación de Luxor, fue adquirido por Henry Rhind en 1858, y se custodia desde 1865 en el Museo Británico de Londres, aunque actualmente no está expuesto (EA 10057-8).

Contiene 87 problemas matemáticos con cuestiones aritméticas básicas, fracciones, cálculo de áreas, volúmenes, progresiones, repartos proporcionales, reglas de tres, ecuaciones lineales y trigonometría básica.

En él se encuentran el tratamiento de las fracciones. Los antiguos egipcios no realizaban el cálculo de fracciones como hoy se cono, pues escribían los números fraccionarios como suma de fracciones unitarias (las de la forma 1/n con n natural) distintas. Este tipo de sumas son conocidas hoy como fracciones egipcias.

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Abajo pongo el texto en ingles para que veais o aprecieis las diferencias del original con la pagina de Wiki en español y el cuidado que hay que tener:

One of the papyrus scrolls, discovered in a tomb in Thebes, was bought by a 25 year old Scotsman, Henry Rhind at a market in Luxor, Egypt, in 1858. After his death at the age of 30, the scroll found its way to the British Museum in London in 1864 and remained there ever since, being referred to as the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus (or RMP for short).

Rhind papyrus So what did it say?

The hieroglyphs (picture-writing) on the papyrus were only deciphered in 1842 (and the Babylonian clay-tablet cuneiform writing was deciphered later that century).

It starts off by saying that the scribe “Ahmes” is writing it about 1600 BC but that he had copied it from “ancient writings” so it probably goes back to at least 2000BC and probably further. The picture is also a link so click on it to go to the St Andrews MacTutor biography of Ahmes.

Since early civilisations would need to predict the start of spring accurately in order to sow seeds, then a large part of such mathematical writing has applications in astronomy. Also, calculations were needed for surveying (geometry) and for building and for accounting. However, quite a lot of the problems in the RMP are arithmetic puzzles – problems posed just for the fun of solving them!

On this page we will look at how the Egyptians of 4000 years ago worked with fractions.

Archivo:Egyptian A'h-mosè or Rhind Papyrus (1065x1330).png

Para saber más:

http://www.maths.surrey.ac.uk/hosted-sites/R.Knott/Fractions/egyptian.html

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Texto de Wiki en ingles y dejo los links para saber más

The Rhind Mathematical Papyrus (RMP) (also designated as: papyrus British Museum 10057, and pBM 10058), is named after Alexander Henry Rhind, a Scottish antiquarian, who purchased the papyrus in 1858 in Luxor, Egypt; it was apparently found during illegal excavations in or near the Ramesseum. It dates to around 1650 BC. The British Museum, where the papyrus is now kept, acquired it in 1864 along with the Egyptian Mathematical Leather Roll, also owned by Henry Rhind; there are a few small fragments held by the Brooklyn Museum in New York It is one of the two well-known Mathematical Papyri along with the Moscow Mathematical Papyrus. The Rhind Papyrus is larger than the Moscow Mathematical Papyrus, while the latter is older than the former.[1]

The Rhind Mathematical Papyrus dates to the Second Intermediate Period of Egypt and is the best example of Egyptian mathematics. It was copied by the scribe Ahmes (i.e., Ahmose; Ahmes is an older transcription favoured by historians of mathematics), from a now-lost text from the reign of king Amenemhat III (12th dynasty). Written in the hieratic script, this Egyptian manuscript is 33 cm tall and over 5 meters long, and began to be transliterated and mathematically translated in the late 19th century. In 2008, the mathematical translation aspect is incomplete in several respects. The document is dated to Year 33 of the Hyksos king Apophis and also contains a separate later Year 11 on its verso likely from his successor, Khamudi.[2]

In the opening paragraphs of the papyrus, Ahmes presents the papyrus as giving “Accurate reckoning for inquiring into things, and the knowledge of all things, mysteries…all secrets

  1. ^ Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd edition, entry on “Папирусы математические”, available online here
  2. ^ cf. Thomas Schneider’s paper ‘The Relative Chronology of the Middle Kingdom and the Hyksos Period (Dyns. 12-17)’ in Erik Hornung, Rolf Krauss & David Warburton (editors), Ancient Egyptian Chronology (Handbook of Oriental Studies), Brill: 2006, p.194-195
  3. ^ a b Maor, Eli (1998). Trigonometric Delights. Princeton University Press. p. 20. ISBN 0691095418.
  4. ^ a b c d [1] MathPages – Egyptian Unit Fractions.
  5. ^ a b c [2] Scott W. Williams, The Mathematics Department of The State University of New York at Buffalo.

External links

Y FINALMENTE POR AQUELLO DE LA SERIEDAD….LO  QUE  PONE  LA PAGINA WEB DEL MUSEO BRITANICO ( A LA QUE YO HARÍA CASO…)

British Museum webpage on the Papyrus.

Rhind Mathematical Papyrus

http://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/highlights/highlight_image.aspx?image=17_mathematicalpapyrus.jpg&retpage=15569

Thebes, Egypt, end of the Second Intermediate Period, around 1550 BC

A number of documents have survived that allow us insight into the ancient Egyptians’ approach to mathematics. This papyrus is the most extensive.


It is not a theoretical treatise, but a list of practical problems encountered in administrative and building works. The text contains 84 problems concerned with numerical operations, practical problem-solving, and geometrical shapes.

The majority of literate Egyptians were scribes and they were expected to undertake various tasks. These must have demanded some mathematical as well as writing skills.

The Rhind Mathematical Papyrus is also important as a historical document, since the copyist noted that he was writing in year 33 of the reign of Apophis, the penultimate king of the Hyksos Fifteenth Dynasty (about 1650-1550 BC) and was copied after an original of the Twelfth Dynasty (about 1985-1795 BC).

On the other side of the papyrus ‘year 11′ is mentioned, with a reference to the taking of some Egyptian towns. This probably refers to the fighting between the Egyptians and the Hyksos before the beginning of the New Kingdom (1550-1070 BC). However, it is not certain to which king ‘year 11′ refers.

The papyrus was acquired by the Scottish lawyer A.H. Rhind during his stay in Thebes in the 1850 s.

Rhind Mathematical Papyrus

17.

Rhind Mathematical Papyrus

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Filed under: ACTUALIDAD,Arqueologia,Arte Antiguo,ARTÍCULOS,Curiosidades,General,H. Egipto,HISTORIA ANTIGUA

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19 nov 09

Pyramidal weight in diorite Next Image

The inscription of Darius I is in Old Persian, Elamite and Babylonian. The Old Persian inscription reads ‘120 karsha. I [am] Darius the great king, king of kings, king of countries, king in this earth, son of Hystaspes, an Achaemenian.’

Pyramidal weight in diorite,

http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/iran/bm_gallery.shtml?select=03


Archaeology in Iran


A selection of images from the British Museum’s recent Forgotten Empire the world of ancient Persia exhibition. All the images are Copyright © The Trustees of The British Museum.

Arqueros persas, los “Inmortales”.

Persian guard relief

Relief of a guard at Susa

This panel shows a guard dressed in a richly decorated Persian costume with a bow, quiver and spear, facing right. Originally this figure was part of a procession of similar guards, perhaps the ‘Immortals’ who formed the king’s personal bodyguard. The bricks are made of faience in brown, yellow, white, green and black

León,ladrillo vidriado, Palacio de Susa


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