Etiqueta: Lista Real Sumeria



10 nov 10

http://www.atlastours.net/iraq/eridu.jpg

El yacimiento de Eridú, Irak,

http://www.atlastours.net/iraq/eridu.jpg

El término “Sumerio”  (Habitantes de Sumer)  es el nombre común dado a los antiguos habitantes del sur de la Mesopotamia por sus sucesores, los acadios. “Shumeru”. Los sumerios se llamaban a sí mismos sag-giga, que significa literalmente “El pueblo de cabezas negras”.[2] La palabra acadia Shumer puede representar este nombre en el dialecto, pero se desconoce por qué los acadios llamaron Shumeru a las tierras del sur.[3] [4]

Su etnia es ASIÁNICA, de ASIA, sin rasgos asiáticos ( como los ojos rasgados) y su lengua aglutinante.

Inventaron la escritura CUNEIFORME, con la que escribieron en arcilla sus textos.


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18 mar 10

http://z.about.com/d/archaeology/1/0/x/B/1/18Ur.jpg

Collar de hojas de oro.Tumba de la reina Pu Abi,Ur I

Ur fue una antigua ciudad del sur de Mesopotamia. Originalmente, estaba localizada cerca de Eridu y de la desembocadura del río Éufrates en el Golfo Pérsico. Hoy en día, sus ruinas se encuentran a 24 km al suroeste de Nasiriya, en el actual Iraq.[1] Según la Biblia fue el lugar de nacimiento de Abraham.

Archivo:Ciudades de Sumeria.svg

Mapa de  la primera Ciudades-estado, Mesopotamia, actual Iraq aproximadamente.


Vazquez Hoys,Ana Maria : Historia del Mundo Antiguo. Tomo I. Vol I (Próximo Oriente) y Vol II (Egipto, fenicios, Israel, Irán). Editorial Sanz y Torres, Noviembre 2003, Febrero 2004, 3ªedición Noviembre 2009.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f7/Ur-Nassiriyah.jpg

Restos de Ur-Nassiriyah actual.Al fondo la zigurat o torre escalonada.

Los restos de Ur forman una colina de ruinas de 12 m de altitud en mitad del desierto de Iraq, a unos 24 km al suroeste de Nasiriya. Las ruinas eran llamadas por los habitantes locales Tell al-Muqayyar (montículo de brea).

La primera investigación en la zona fue llevada a cabo por el cónsul británico en Basora J. E. Taylor en 1854 por sugerencia del Museo Británico. Ya entonces se encontraron tablillas que indicaban que los restos pertenecían a la Ur bíblica; sin embargo, esto no fue suficiente para que se realizasen investigaciones de importancia y poco después se abandonó el lugar, produciéndose saqueos. Miles de tablillas cuneiformes terminaron en los mercados de Bagdad y, desde allí, en colecciones privadas.

Los primeros restos de Ur pertenecen al período de El Obeid (V milenio a. C.), en el cual se produjeron los primeros asentamientos urbanos en la zona. Ur es, por tanto, una de las ciudades más antiguas de Sumeria.

Durante el IV milenio a. C. (período de Uruk) la gran cantidad de cerámica encontrada parece indicar que Ur pudo haber sido un centro importante de producción. Esta situación se prolongó hasta el período Yemdet-Nasr, hacia el 3000 a. C. En algún momento del milenio siguiente se produjo una inundación de carácter local que dejó una importante capa de lodo en los estratos.

Período Dinástico Arcaico

El Estandarte de Ur fue hallado en una tumba perteneciente a los siglos XXVII-XXV, en el período Dinástico Arcaico. Representa diversas escenas de la vida cotidiana y de guerra.

La información de las capas pertenecientes al período Dinástico Arcaico es reducida, ya que unos 500 años después se derribó gran parte de las antiguas estructuras para construir otras más monumentales. Sin embargo, la historia de la ciudad puede reconstruirse en base a inscripciones en otras ciudades y la Lista Real Sumeria.

http://cdli.ucla.edu/collections/ashmolean/weld_blundell.jpg

Lista Real Sumeria, Ashmolean Museum,Oxford,U.K.(Weld-Blundell Prisma)

La Lista Real Sumeria es un documento entre mitológico e histórico dejado por los escribas de Mesopotamia y escrito en sumerio, que refleja la sucesión de monarcas desde los primeros tiempos hasta aproximadamente las conquistas de Hammurabi. Los primeros reyes son dudosos y sus periodos imposibles pero después se acercan a la historia comprobada, aunque se omiten dinastías y otras se dan como sucesivas cuando fueron contemporáneas. Los reyes de Asiria y los de Babilonia también tuvieron este de tipo de listas.

El primer rey mencionado cuya existencia está reflejada en otras inscripciones es Mebagaresi de Kish, contemporáneo de Gilgamesh. El primer gobernante de la lista que es claramente histórico es Lugalzagesi de Uruk del siglo XXIV a. C., quien conquistó Lagash, que a su vez fue conquistada por Sargón de Acad.

Stephen Langdon (Shillito Reader 1911-1937) did more than any other single person to develop the tablet collection. Langdon enjoyed the patronage of Herbert Weld-Blundell, who had traveled widely in Africa and the Middle East, and led an expedition to Persepolis in the late 19th Century. He presented his collection to the University in 1921-1922, and subsequently supported the Oxford-Field Museum Expedition to Kish, which Langdon directed. Langdon’s enduring legacy was the Oxford Editions of Cuneiform Texts (OECT) founded in 1923, in the first instance to publish the Weld-Blundell Collection in volumes 1-3, the latter undertaken by Godfrey Driver. OECT 2 presented what subsequently became known as the “Weld-Blundell prism,” featuring a well-preserved version of the Sumerian King List.

The Weld-Blundell prism (click on image to learn more)

cdli.ucla.edu/…/ashmolean/ashmolean_intro.html

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/timeline/fccf7ed047323baf0313b46f4a82f37d.png

Reginald Campbell Thompson’s brief tenure as Shillito Reader (1937-1941) coincided with the evacuation of the Ashmolean Museum collections during the Second World War. Professor Oliver Gurney (Shillito Reader 1945-1978) devoted much attention to the Ashmolean’s tablet collection. He joined broken tablet fragments from Kish, and prepared a card index of the whole collection to encourage specialist scholars to research and publish the inscribed material in the Ashmolean Museum. He contributed many copies and identifications of lexical texts to a fundamental publication, Materials for the Sumerian Lexicon. A volume on Sumerian Literary texts by Oliver Gurney and Samuel Kramer was published as OECT 5 in 1976, followed by Dr Gilbert McEwan’s publication of Hellenistic texts in OECT 9 (1982) and Late Babylonian texts in OECT 10 (1984). Professor Gurney published the literary texts with the addition of some non-literary ones in OECT 11 (1989). Dr. Francis Joannès copied the neo-Babylonian texts in the Bodleian Library collection, published as OECT 12 (1990).

Dr Stephanie Dalley taught Akkadian and Sumerian at the University of Oxford from 1979-2007, receiving the title Shillito Senior Research Fellow in 1988. Dr Dalley and Professor Norman Yoffee prepared a volume of Old Babylonian texts, primarily from Kish, also identifying an important group of texts from the Diyala region in the Museum’s collection, published as OECT 13 (1991). Dr Dalley presented further Old Babylonian texts from Larsa, Sippir, Kish and Lagaba in OECT 15, with some copies contributed by Eleanor Robson and Tina Breckwoldt (2005).

Although OECT is the main publication series for the inscribed material in the Ashmolean Museum, Eleanor Robson’s published study of Mesopotamian mathematics, 2100-1600 BC (OECT 14, 1999), mostly drew on sources from other collections, but included some copies of Ashmolean tablets eventually published in OECT 15.

Some studies of the Ashmolean collections have been published elsewhere. An important piece of work was Prof. Ignace Gelb’s Sargonic Texts in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford (Chicago, 1970). For well over twenty years, Dr. Jean-Pierre Grégoire worked on the Sumerian administrative texts in the collection, resulting in the publication of AAICAB 1/1-4 (2000-2002). This followed his previous republication of the tablets from Jemdet Nasr in the Museum with Robert K. Englund (MSVO 1; Berlin, 1991).

The publication of the collections is now largely complete, although it is hoped that a continuing appraisal of the collections and the digitization of the archive will identify previously unpublished texts, and stimulate new readings and interpretations. The collections continue to be an important resource for specialist researchers, and are frequently used for teaching purposes by staff of the Oriental Institute, University of Oxford. Over the years, the curatorial staff and conservation laboratories of the Department of Antiquities, and the Photographic Studio of the Museum, as well as the staff of the Ashmolean Library and the Griffith Institute have contributed their specialist assistance in various ways. The digital age has now ushered in opportunities for wider dissemination of the Ashmolean collections. With the assistance of Dr. Jacob Dahl and Nathanael Shelley (on behalf of CDLI), digitisation of the Ashmolean tablet collections has been initiated and is a continuing process.
Text based on Roger Moorey’s preface in AAICAB 1 (2000), with additions by Jack Green and Stephanie Dalley.

Primera dinastía de Kish

De los reyes de la lista de la primera dinastía de Kish sólo Mebaragesi y su hijo Aka (Aga) tienen comprobación histórica, y la duración de los reinados de todos ellos es imposible. Debe tratarse entonces en general de figuras mitológicas, con posiblemente un trasfondo histórico que fue el hecho de que Kish tuviera un cierto poder regional.

Mebagaresi de Kish gobernaba hacia el 2600 a. C.. Las inscripciones de Mebagaresi aparecen en la región al sud de Diyala en el antiguo templo de Khafaji (de la época de Yemdet Nasr). La lista habla de su conquista del país de Elam, lo que informa de la antigüedad del conflicto entre Sumeria y Elam y parecería entonces que su poder se extendía hacia el río Diyala y hacia el sur de Sumeria hasta Elam.

Más tarde soberanos como Mesalim de Ur y Eannatum de Lagash utilizarían el título de rey de Kish debido a su prestigio, quizás ganado por Mebaragesi. La región de Diyala que dominaba parece que estaba en proceso de superposición del elemento semita pero que antes no era sumeria, sino quizás iránica como parecen demostrar nombres como Ishnun (convertido en Eshnunna, “Santuario del príncipe” en sumerio) o Tutub. Incluido Babilonia se decía Babilla ( que se convirtió en Babilim, en acadio semítico “puerta del dios”).

Mesalim

Se le conoce también como el rey de Kish que no figura a la lista de reyes: Mesalim. Su origen no está establecido. Tenía como deidad tutelar a Ishtaran, venerado en Der, lo que hace pensar que venía de esta zona, pero como que se han encontrado inscripciones en Adab, en Sumeria Centra y en Lagash no puede asegurarse nada. Esta difusión de las inscripciones en todo caso corresponde a un rey que gobernaba en muchos sitios. Se sabe que al mismo tiempo en Lagash gobernaba un Ensi (o mejor dicho, una serie de ensis) y Mesalim hizo de árbitro en una disputa fronteriza entre Lagash y Umma de la que se hicieron eco Eannatum y Entemena, más tarde ensis de Lagash. Hay que preguntarse si no sería el rey de Hamazi que nombra la lista.

Primera dinastía de Uruk

El poema épico de Gilgamesh nombra las luchas de este rey de Uruk con Mebaragesi de Kish. A Gilgamesh se atribuye la construcción de la muralla de Uruk, la más antigua muralla de Sumeria (hecho que parece coincidir la arqueología), y el dominio sobre Nippur, un centro más religioso que político dedicado al culto al dios Enlil. La lista de reyes nombra dos antecesores, Lugalbanda y Enmerkar. Este último lo hace el fundador de Uruk, de la unión de dos ciudades, una de ellas Eanna o Eana, sobre la que debía gobernar. Ninguno de estos reyes tiene comprobación histórica, aunque Gilgamesh figura en una lista de dioses encontrada a Shuruppak en la que se dice que su padre era Lugalbanda ( las listas dicen que su padre era un fantasma) y que fueron héroes que más tarde fueron divinizados. Estos reyes de Uruk debían ser entonces contemporáneos con los últimos reyes de Kish y anteriores probablemente a Mesalim.

Primera dinastía de Ur

La siguiente hegemonía parece haber estado en Ur. Las tumbas reales de esta ciudad nombran dos reyes, Meskalamdu y Akalamdug, que no están en la lista de reyes, y una reina, Puabi. Parece que los reyes en Ur eran enterrados con miembros de su servicio (fue encontrada una tumba con 80 servidores). Ya que los reyes eran sumerios esto debía ser una costumbre sumeria y no semita, aunque se da algún caso similar en Kish. Mesanepada, hacia el 2490 a. C., sí que es nombrado por la lista, y parece que efectivamente quiso ejercer la hegemonía ya que se tituló “Rey de Kish”.

La Ciudad – estado de Ur estaba situada en una laguna comunicada con el golfo pérsico en una posición estratégica excepcional para el comercio en la parte sur de Sumeria. Consta su comercio con Tilmun o Dilmun, que se identifica con la costa de Arabia cerca de Bahrain, Magan (posiblemente Omán, para otros Makrán en Pakistán) y Melukhkha (Makrán, para otros se ha de buscar este nombre en otra ubicación). Meskiangnana fue el hijo y sucesor de Mesanapeda, pero después siguieron dos reyes de nombre semita-acadio, Elulu y Balulu, coincidiendo su reinado con Eannatum y Entemena de Lagash.

Umma

Lugalzagesi de Umma, un rey usurpador, ejerció una breve hegemonía hacia el 2350 aC, que después perdió ante Sargon I de Acad.

http://z.about.com/d/archaeology/1/0/2/C/1/26Ur.jpg

Plano de la tumba de la reina Pu abi,Ur I

Plan of Queen Puabi’s tomb. The tomb chamber containing Puabi’s bier, body and three attendants is at the top of the plan; the death pit with wooden chest, chariot, oxen and more attendants is at the bottom.

Iraq’s Ancient Past: Rediscovering Ur’s Royal Cemetery, Penn Museum

Queen Puabi’s Tomb, PG/800, measured 4.35 x 2.8 meters and was built of limestone slabs and mud brick. On a raised platform in the tomb, a skeleton of a middle aged woman lay wearing an elaborate gold, lapis lazuli and carnelian headdress. She wore a huge pair of crescent-shaped golden earrings, and her torso was covered with gold and semi-precious beads.

Near the skeleton’s right shoulder were found three lapis lazuli cylinder seals. Inscribed on one of the seals was the name Pu-abi, with the title “nin”, translated as queen. A second seal is labeled “A-bara-gi”, thought to be the name of Puabi’s husband. Three additional complete skeletons and the skull fragment of a fourth were found in the tomb and are considered retainers, part of Puabi’s royal court and/or servants who were sacrificed at her funeral. More retainers were discovered in the adjacent pit and ramps alongside Pu-abi’s tomb: recent examination of the bones suggest that at least some of these had been menial laborers for most of their lives.

Sources and Further Information

En algunos textos de Lagash, ciertos monarcas de esa ciudad se atribuyen haber conquistado Ur, si bien no indican los nombres de los reyes derrotados. Tampoco en la lista Real Sumeria se menciona a esos conquistadores, si no que hace referencia a una cesión de la realeza desde Uruk, al monarca de Ur, Mesannepada. En los sellos de este rey se encuentra que se titulaba “rey de Kish“, título que podría hacer referencia no tanto a la ciudad acadia como a todo el territorio de la Mesopotamia central, lo cual podría estar apoyado por el uso que, posteriormente, Sargón de Acad dio a este título. Esto indicaría una posible hegemonía de Ur en la zona a mediados del Dinástico Arcaico, lo cual estaría respaldado por algunos restos, que muestran el incendio de la ciudad de Shuruppak y la destrucción del palacio de Kish.

Se conocen algunos datos de la familia de Mesanepada. Así, una tablilla de fundación encontrada en un templo cerca de tell Obeid nombra a un tal Aanepada, hijo de Mesannepada. El hijo de Aanepada se llamaba Meskiaga-nuna, y fue él quien sucedió a su abuelo en el trono. De este rey se conoce su existencia por una tablilla que le dedicó su esposa a su muerte. La lista real Sumeria menciona a estos dos reyes y a dos más, en la que denomina dinastía I de Ur. De estos dos últimos reyes destaca que sus nombres no son sumerios sino acadios.[1]

Los nombres de los monarcas de la dinastía II de Ur aparecen muy deteriorados en la lista Real; sin embargo, se conocen bien los acontecimientos de este período, marcado por la rivalidad entre las distintas ciudades. Hacia el siglo XXIV a. C. el rey de Umma Lugalzagesi conquista las ciudades del sur de Mesopotamia, incluida Ur, formando una hegemonía local y declarándose rey de Kish, al igual que habían hecho los monarcas de la dinastía I de Ur.

Las Tumbas reales de Ur

Uno de los hallazgos más sorprendentes de la expedición de Leonard Woolley en Ur fue una serie de 16 sepulturas a las que se denominó las Tumbas Reales de Ur. Pertenecían al período Dinástico Arcaico y estaban construidas por paredes de ladrillo o piedra coronadas por una bóveda. Se encontraban en un cementerio mayor, destinado a todo tipo de personas y que contenía más de 2.500 tumbas. Cada una de las tumbas reales contenía un cuerpo principal y un cierto número de acompañantes, así como numerosas riquezas.

Copa de oro encontrada en la tumba de la reina Puabi, actualmente en el Museo Británico. 26002400 a. C., período Dinástico Arcaico.

De todas las sepulturas, destacaba la de una reina identificada gracias a su sello cilíndrico como Puabi. En su interior, además de la reina, se encontraban los cuerpos de cinco hombres armados y diez mujeres acompañadas por la magnífica Arpa de Ur rematada por la cabeza de un toro en oro. La cámara contenía incluso un carro y los esqueletos de dos bueyes.

http://www.dearqueologia.com/ciudades_antiguas/ur/corona_pu_abi.gif

Tocado de la reina Pu abi de Ur i

El cuerpo de la reina estaba envuelto en joyas y mantos con incrustaciones. Sobre la cabeza llevaba un tocado a base de hojas y una peineta rematada por estrellas de cinco puntas. Cerca de su mano tenía una copa de oro. Y su sello permitio identificarla.

Sello de la reina Pu abi y su impronta

http://www.bloganavazquez.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/05/sello-puabi-2-ps087498_l.jpg

Debajo de un baúl había un pasadizo que comunicaba con otra cámara funeraria; en ella se encontraba el rey A-kalam-dug de Ur, cuya tumba había sido parcialmente saqueada.

http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_ICqwZHRP8lU/SyBhI_P3G1I/AAAAAAAAAxA/E0Z2kzzRt4w/s320/Ur+Queen+Puabi.jpg

Tocado de la reina Pu abi

Otra de las tumbas reales pertenecía al lugal Meskalamdug.

En otra de las fosas, cuyo dueño no se conoce, se encontraron 74 cuerpos, la mayoría de mujeres, lujosamente ataviados. Es en esta última tumba donde se encontró el Estandarte de Ur, una de las piezas más célebres de las halladas en Ur.

El estandarte, está dividido en distintas franjas que contienen escenas cotidianas y de guerra, en la que destaca la representación de carros de guerra.

Se ha interpretado de diferentes formas el hecho de que las tumbas reales contuviesen cuerpos de sus sirvientes; para algunos autores, se trataba de enterramientos rituales, en los que el monarca era acompañado por éstos hacia el más allá. Sin embargo esto no ha sido demostrado y también se han barajado otras opciones, como que la tumba real fuese escogida por las élites como lugar ilustre de enterramiento, siendo sus cuerpos desplazados allí una vez construida.

EL POZO DE LA MUERTE

http://z.about.com/d/archaeology/1/0/0/C/1/24Ur.jpg

Fuentes de Informacion

Pollock, Susan. 2007. The Royal Cemetery of Ur: Ritual, Tradition, and the Creation of Subjects. pp 89-110 In Representations of Political Power: Case Histories from Times of Change and Dissolving Order in the Ancient Near East, Marlies Heinz and Marian H. Feldman, editors. Eisenbrauns: Winona Lake, Indiana.

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25 oct 09

File:Sumer3.jpg

http://etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk/cgi-bin/etcsl.cgi?text=t.2.1.1#

Texto en inglés

http://cdli.ucla.edu/collections/ashmolean/weld_blundell.jpg

Lista de reyes sumeria

http://cdli.ucla.edu/collections/ashmolean/weld_blundell.jpg

cdli.ucla.edu/…/ashmolean/ashmolean_intro.html

Well-preserved version of the Sumerian King List.

http://www.ashmolean.org/ash/faqs/q001/

.N.Kramer, The Sumerians: Their History, Culture and Character (University of Chicago Press, 1963): Appendix E gives a translation of the Sumerian King List.

Bibliografia:Vázquez Hoys,A.Mª:-

2ªedición Noviembre 2007

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Los reyes anteriores al Diluvio


Disclose.tv The Sumerian King List (Pre Flood Period, 241200BC Video

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The Sumerian king list: translation

http://www-etcsl.orient.ox.ac.uk/section2/tr211.htm

(In the following translation, mss. are referred to by the sigla used by Vincente 1995; from those listed there, mss. Fi, Go, P6, and WB 62 were not used; if not specified by a note, numerical data come from ms. WB.)

1-39After the kingship descended from heaven, the kingship was in Eridug. In Eridug, Alulim became king; he ruled for 28800 years. Alaljar ruled for 36000 years. 2 kings; they ruled for 64800 years. Then Eridug fell and the kingship was taken to Bad-tibira. In Bad-tibira, En-men-lu-ana ruled for 43200 years. En-men-gal-ana ruled for 28800 years. Dumuzid, the shepherd, ruled for 36000 years. 3 kings; they ruled for 108000 years. Then Bad-tibira fell (?) and the kingship was taken to Larag. In Larag, En-sipad-zid-ana ruled for 28800 years. 1 king; he ruled for 28800 years. Then Larag fell (?) and the kingship was taken to Zimbir. In Zimbir, En-men-dur-ana became king; he ruled for 21000 years. 1 king; he ruled for 21000 years. Then Zimbir fell (?) and the kingship was taken to Curuppag. In Curuppag, Ubara-Tutu became king; he ruled for 18600 years. 1 king; he ruled for 18600 years. In 5 cities 8 kings; they ruled for 241200 years. Then the flood swept over.

40-94After the flood had swept over, and the kingship had descended from heaven, the kingship was in Kic. In Kic, Jucur became king; he ruled for 1200 years. Kullassina-bel ruled for 960 (ms. P2+L2 has instead: 900) years. Nanjiclicma ruled for (ms. P2+L2 has:) 670 (?) years. En-tarah-ana ruled for (ms. P2+L2 has:) 420 years ……, 3 months, and 3 1/2 days. Babum …… ruled for (ms. P2+L2 has:) 300 years. Puannum ruled for 840 (ms. P2+L2 has instead: 240) years. Kalibum ruled for 960 (ms. P2+L2 has instead: 900) years. Kalumum ruled for 840 (mss. P3+BT14, Su1 have instead: 900) years. Zuqaqip ruled for 900 (ms. Su1 has instead: 600) years. (In mss. P2+L2, P3+BT14, P5, the 10th and 11th rulers of the dynasty precede the 8th and 9th.) Atab (mss. P2+L2, P3+BT14, P5 have instead: Aba) ruled for 600 years. Macda, the son of Atab, ruled for 840 (ms. Su1 has instead: 720) years. Arwium, the son of Macda, ruled for 720 years. Etana, the shepherd, who ascended to heaven and consolidated all the foreign countries, became king; he ruled for 1500 (ms. P2+L2 has instead: 635) years. Balih, the son of Etana, ruled for 400 (mss. P2+L2, Su1 have instead: 410) years. En-me-nuna ruled for 660 (ms. P2+L2 has instead: 621) years. Melem-Kic, the son of En-me-nuna, ruled for 900 years. (ms. P3+BT14 adds:) 1560 are the years of the dynasty of En-me-nuna . Barsal-nuna, the son of En-me-nuna, (mss. P5, P3+BT14 have instead: Barsal-nuna) ruled for 1200 years. Zamug, the son of Barsal-nuna, ruled for 140 years. Tizqar, the son of Zamug, ruled for 305 years. (ms. P3+BT14 adds:) 1620 + X ……. Ilku ruled for 900 years. Iltasadum ruled for 1200 years. En-men-barage-si, who made the land of Elam submit, became king; he ruled for 900 years. Aga, the son of En-men-barage-si, ruled for 625 years. (ms. P3+BT14 adds:) 1525 are the years of the dynasty of En-men-barage-si. 23 kings; they ruled for 24510 years, 3 months, and 3 1/2 days. Then Kic was defeated and the kingship was taken to E-ana.

95-133In E-ana, Mec-ki-aj-gacer, the son of Utu, became lord and king; he ruled for 324 (ms. P2+L2 has instead: 325) years. Mec-ki-aj-gacer entered the sea and disappeared. Enmerkar, the son of Mec-ki-aj-gacer, the king of Unug, who built Unug (mss. L1+N1, P2+L2 have instead: under whom Unug was built), became king; he ruled for 420 (ms. TL has instead: 900 + X) years. (ms. P3+BT14 adds:) 745 are the years of the dynasty of Mec-ki-aj-gacer. (ms TL adds instead: ……; he ruled for 5 + X years.) Lugalbanda, the shepherd, ruled for 1200 years. Dumuzid, the fisherman, whose city was Kuara, ruled for 100 (ms. TL has instead: 110) years. (ms. P3+BT14 adds:) He captured En-me-barage-si single-handed. Gilgamec, whose father was a phantom (?), the lord of Kulaba, ruled for 126 years. Ur-Nungal, the son of Gilgamec, ruled for 30 years. Udul-kalama, the son of Ur-Nungal (ms. Su1 has instead: Ur-lugal), ruled for 15 years. La-ba’cum ruled for 9 years. En-nun-tarah-ana ruled for 8 years. Mec-he, the smith, ruled for 36 years. Melem-ana (ms. Su2 has instead: Til-kug (?) ……) ruled for 6 (ms. Su2 has instead: 900) years. Lugal-kitun (?) ruled for 36 (ms. Su2 has instead: 420) years. 12 kings; they ruled for 2310 (ms. Su2 has instead: 3588) years. Then Unug was defeated and the kingship was taken to Urim.

134-147In Urim, Mec-Ane-pada became king; he ruled for 80 years. Mec-ki-aj-Nanna (ms. P2+L2 has instead: Mec-ki-aj-nuna), the son of Mec-Ane-pada, became king; he ruled for 36 (ms. P2+L2 has instead: 30) years. Elulu ruled for (mss. L1+N1, P2+L2, P3+BT14 have:) 25 years. Balulu ruled for (mss. L1+N1, P2+L2, P3+BT14 have:) 36 years. (mss. L1+N1, P2+L2 have:) 4 kings; they ruled for (mss. L1+N1, P2+L2, P3+BT14 have:) 171 years. Then Urim was defeated and the kingship was taken to Awan.

148-159In Awan, …… became king; he ruled for …… years. …… ruled for …… years. …… ruled for 36 years. 3 kings; they ruled for 356 years. Then Awan was defeated and the kingship was taken to Kic.

160-178In Kic, Susuda, the fuller, became king; he ruled for 201 + X years. Dadasig ruled for (ms. vD has:) 81 years. Mamagal, the boatman, ruled for 360 (ms. L1+N1 has instead: 420) years. Kalbum, the son of Mamagal (ms. WB has instead: Magalgal), ruled for 195 (ms. L1+N1 has instead: 132) years. Tuge (?) ruled for 360 years. Men-nuna, (ms. L1+N1 adds:) the son of Tuge (?), ruled for 180 years. (in mss. L1+N1, TL, the 7th and 8th rulers of the dynasty are in reverse order) …… ruled for 290 years. Lugalju ruled for 360 (ms. L1+N1 has instead: 420) years. 8 kings; they ruled for 3195 (ms. L1+N1 has instead: 3792) years. Then Kic was defeated and the kingship was taken to Hamazi.

179-185In Hamazi, Hadanic became king; he ruled for 360 years. 1 king; he ruled for 360 years. Then Hamazi was defeated and the kingship was taken (ms. P3+BT14 has instead: was returned a second time) to Unug.

(In mss. IB, L1+N1, TL, the 2nd dynasty of Unug of ll. 185-191 is preceded by the 2nd dynasty of Urim of ll. 192-203.)

186-192In Unug, En-cakanca-ana became king; he ruled for 60 years. Lugal-ure (ms. P3+BT14 has instead: Lugal-kinice-dudu (?)) ruled for 120 years. Argandea ruled for 7 years. (ms. L1+N1 has:) 3 kings; they ruled for (ms. L1+N1 has:) 187 years. Then Unug was defeated (ms. TL has instead: destroyed) and the kingship was taken to Urim.

193-204In Urim, Nani became king; he ruled for (ms. vD has:) 120 + X (ms. IB has instead: 54 + X) years. Mec-ki-aj-Nanna, the son of Nani, ruled for (ms. vD has:) 48 years. ……, the son (?) of ……, ruled for (ms. IB has:) 2 years. (ms. IB has:) 3 kings; they ruled for (ms. IB has:) 582 (ms. TL has instead: 578) years. (ms. vD has instead: 2 kings; they ruled for 120 + X years.) Then Urim was defeated (ms. TL has instead: destroyed) and the kingship was taken to Adab.

205-210In Adab, Lugal-Ane-mundu became king; he ruled for (mss. L1+N1, TL have:) 90 years. (mss. L1+N1, TL have:) 1 king; he ruled for (mss. L1+N1, TL have:) 90 years. Then Adab was defeated (ms. TL has instead: destroyed) and the kingship was taken to Mari.

211-223In Mari, Anbu (?) became king; he ruled for 30 (ms. TL has instead: 90) years. Anba (?), the son of Anbu (?), ruled for 17 (ms. TL has instead: 7) years. Bazi, the leatherworker, ruled for 30 years. Zizi, the fuller, ruled for 20 years. Limer, the gudu priest, ruled for 30 years. Carrum-iter ruled for 9 (ms. TL has instead: 7) years. 6 kings; they ruled for 136 (ms. TL has instead: 184) years. Then Mari was defeated (ms. TL has instead: destroyed) and the kingship was taken to Kic.

224-231In Kic, Kug-Bau, the woman tavern-keeper, who made firm the foundations of Kic, became king; she ruled for 100 years. 1 king; she ruled for 100 years. Then Kic was defeated (ms. TL has instead: destroyed) and the kingship was taken to Akcak.

232-243In Akcak, Unzi became king; he ruled for 30 years. Undalulu ruled for 6 (mss. L1+N1, S have instead: 12) years. Urur ruled for (ms. IB has instead: was king (?) for) 6 years. Puzur-Nirah ruled for (mss. IB, L1+N1, S, Su1 have:) 20 years. Icu-Il ruled for (mss. IB, L1+N1, S, Su1 have:) 24 years. Cu-Suen, the son of Icu-Il, ruled for (mss. IB, L1+N1, S, TL have:) 7 (ms. Su1 has instead: 24) years. (mss. S, Su1, TL have:) 6 kings; they ruled for (mss. L1+N1, S, TL have:) 99 (ms. Su1 has instead: 116) years (ms. IB has instead: 5 kings; they ruled for (ms. IB has:) 87 years). Then Akcak was defeated (ms. S has instead: Then the reign of Akcak was abolished) and the kingship was taken to Kic.

(mss. IB, S, Su1, Su3+Su4 list the 3rd and 4th dynasty of Kic of ll. 224-231 and ll. 244-258, respectively, as one dynasty)

244-258In Kic, Puzur-Suen, the son of Kug-Bau, became king; he ruled for 25 years. Ur-Zababa, the son of Puzur-Suen, ruled for 400 (mss. P3+BT14, S have instead: 6) (ms. IB has instead: 4 + X) years. (ms. P3+BT14 adds:) 131 are the years of the dynasty of Kug-Bau. Zimudar (ms. TL has instead: Ziju-iake) ruled for 30 (ms. IB has instead: 30 + X) years. Uß³i-watar, the son of Zimudar (ms. TL has instead: Ziju-iake), ruled for 7 (ms. S has instead: 6) years. Ectar-muti ruled for 11 (ms. Su1 has instead: 17 (?)) years. Icme-Camac ruled for 11 years. (ms. Su1 adds:) Cu-ilicu ruled for 15 years. Nanniya, the jeweller, (ms. Su1 has instead: Zimudar) (ms. IB has instead: ……) ruled for 7 (ms. S has instead: 3) years. 7 kings; they ruled for 491 (ms. Su1 has instead: 485) years (ms. S has instead: 8 kings; they ruled for (ms. S has:) 586 years). Then Kic was defeated (ms. S has instead: Then the reign of Kic was abolished) and the kingship was taken (ms. P3+BT14 has instead: was returned a third time) to Unug.

(ms. IB omits the 3rd dynasty of Unug of ll. 258-263)

259-265In Unug, Lugal-zage-si became king; he ruled for 25 (ms. P3+BT14 has instead: 34) years. 1 king; he ruled for 25 (ms. P3+BT14 has instead: 34) years. Then Unug was defeated (ms. S has instead: Then the reign of Unug was abolished) and the kingship was taken to Agade.

266-296In Agade, Sargon, whose father was a gardener, the cupbearer of Ur-Zababa, became king, the king of Agade, who built Agade (ms. L1+N1 has instead: under whom Agade was built); he ruled for 56 (ms. L1+N1 has instead: 55) (ms. TL has instead: 54) years. Rimuc, the son of Sargon, ruled for 9 (ms. IB has instead: 7) (ms. L1+N1 has instead: 15) years. Man-icticcu, the older brother of Rimuc, the son of Sargon, ruled for 15 (ms. L1+N1 has instead: 7) years. Naram-Suen, the son of Man-icticcu, ruled for (mss. L1+N1, P3+BT14 have:) 56 years. Car-kali-carri, the son of Naram-Suen, ruled for (ms. L1+N1, Su+Su4 have:) 25 (ms. P3+BT14 has instead: 24) years. (ms. P3+BT14 adds:) 157 are the years of the dynasty of Sargon. Then who was king? Who was the king? (ms. Su3+Su4 has instead: who was king? Who indeed was king?) Irgigi was king, Imi was king, Nanûm was king (in mss. L1+N1, Su3+Su4, Imi and Nanûm are in reverse order) , Ilulu was king, and the (mss. P3+BT14, S have:) 4 of them ruled for only (mss. P3+BT14, S have:) 3 years. Dudu ruled for 21 years. Cu-Durul, the son of Dudu, ruled for 15 (ms. IB has instead: 18) years. 11 kings; they ruled for 181 years (ms. S has instead: 12 kings; they ruled for (ms. S has:) 197 years) (mss. Su1, Su3+Su4, which omit Dudu and Cu-Durul, have instead: 9 kings; they ruled for (ms. Su1 has:) 161 (ms. Su3+Su4 has instead: 177) years. Then Agade was defeated (ms. S has instead: Then the reign of Agade was abolished) and the kingship was taken to Unug.

297-307In Unug, Ur-nijin became king; he ruled for 7 (mss. IB, S have instead: 3) (ms. Su1 has instead: 15) (ms. Su3+Su4 has instead: 30) years. Ur-gigir, the son of Ur-nijin, ruled for 6 (ms. IB has instead: 7) (ms. Su1 has instead: 15) (ms. Su3+Su4 has instead: 7) years. Kuda ruled for 6 years. Puzur-ili ruled for 5 (ms. IB has instead: 20) years. Ur-Utu ruled for 6 (ms. Su3+Su4 has instead: Ur-Utu), the son of Ur-gigir, ruled for 25 (ms. Su1 has instead: Lugal-melem, the son of Ur-gigir, ruled for 7) years. 5 kings; they ruled for 30 (ms. IB has instead: 43) (mss. PÝ+Ha, S have instead: 26) years (ms. Su3+Su4, which omits Kuda and Puzur-ili, has instead: 3 kings; they ruled for (ms. Su3+Su4 has:) 47 years). Unug was defeated (ms. S has instead: Then the reign of Unug was abolished) and the kingship was taken to the army (ms. Su3+Su4 has instead: land) of Gutium.

308-334In the army (ms. Su3+Su4 has instead: land) of Gutium, at first no king was famous; they were their own kings and ruled thus for 3 years (ms. L1+N1 has instead: they had no king; they ruled themselves for 5 years). Then Inkicuc (ms. Su3+Su4 has instead: ……) ruled for 6 (ms. L1+Ni1 has instead: 7) years. Zarlagab ruled for 6 years. Culme (ms. L1+N1 has instead: Yarlagac) ruled for 6 years. Silulumec (ms. Mi has instead: Silulu) ruled for 6 (ms. G has instead: 7) years. Inimabakec ruled for 5 (ms. Mi has instead: Duga ruled for 6) years. Igecauc ruled for 6 (ms. Mi has instead: Ilu-an (?) ruled for 3) years. Yarlagab ruled for 15 (ms. Mi has instead: 5) years. Ibate ruled for 3 years. Yarla (ms. L1+N1 has instead: Yarlangab (?)) ruled for 3 years. Kurum (ms. L1+N1 has instead: ……) ruled for 1 (ms. Mi has instead: 3) years. Apil-kin ruled for 3 years. La-erabum (?) ruled for 2 years. Irarum ruled for 2 years. Ibranum ruled for 1 year. Hablum ruled for 2 years. Puzur-Suen, the son of Hablum, ruled for 7 years. Yarlaganda ruled for 7 years. …… ruled for 7 years. Tiriga (?) ruled for 40 days. 21 kings; they ruled for (ms. L1+N1 has:) 124 years and 40 days (ms. Su3+Su4 has instead: 25 years). Then the army of Gutium was defeated (ms. TL has instead: destroyed) and the kingship was taken to Unug.

335-340In Unug, Utu-hejal became king; he ruled for 427 years, …… days (ms. IB has instead: 26 years, 2 + X months, and 15 days) (ms. J has instead: 7 years, 6 months, and 15 days) (ms. TL has instead: 7 years, 6 months, and 5 days). 1 king; he ruled for 427 years, …… days (ms. J has instead: 7 years, 6 months, and 15 days) (ms. TL has instead: 7 years, 6 months, and 5 days). Then Unug was defeated and the kingship was taken to Urim.

341-354In Urim, Ur-Namma became king; he ruled for 18 years. Culgi, the son of Ur-Namma, ruled for 46 (mss. Su3+Su4, TL have instead: 48) (ms. P5 has instead: 58) years. Amar-Suena, the son of Culgi, ruled for 9 (ms. Su3+Su4 has instead: 25) years. Cu-Suen, the son of Amar-Suena, ruled for 9 (ms. P5 has instead: 7) (ms. Su1 has instead: 20 + X) (ms. Su3+Su4 has instead: 16) years. Ibbi-Suen, the son of Cu-Suen, ruled for 24 (mss. P5, Su1 have instead: 25) (ms. Su3+Su4 has instead: 15) (ms. TL has instead: 23 (?)) years. 4 kings; they ruled for 108 years (mss. J, P5, Su1, Su3+Su4 have instead: 5 kings; they ruled for (ms. P5 has:) 117 (ms. Su1 has instead: 120 + X) (ms. Su3+Su4 has instead: 123) years). Then Urim was defeated (ms. P5 has instead: Then the reign of Urim was abolished). (ms. Su3+Su4 adds:) The very foundation of Sumer was torn out (?). The kingship was taken to Isin.

355-377In Isin, Icbi-Erra became king; he ruled for 33 (ms. P5 has instead: 32) years. Cu-ilicu, the son of Icbi-Erra, ruled for 20 (ms. P5 has instead: 10) (ms. Su1 has instead: 15) years. Iddin-Dagan, the son of Cu-ilicu, ruled for 21 (ms. Su1 has instead: 25) years. Icme-Dagan, the son of Iddin-Dagan, ruled for (mss. P2, P5 have:) 20 (ms. Mi has instead: 18) years. Lipit-Ectar, the son of Icme-Dagan (ms. P2 has instead: Iddin-Dagan), ruled for (mss. L1+N1, P2, P5 have:) 11 years. Ur-Ninurta (mss. L1+N1, P2 add:) , the son of Ickur — may he have years of abundance, a good reign, and a sweet life – ruled for (ms. P5 has:) 28 years. Bur-Suen, the son of Ur-Ninurta, ruled for 21 years. Lipit-Enlil, the son of Bur-Suen, ruled for 5 years. Erra-imitti ruled for 8 (mss. P5, TL have instead: 7) years. (ms. P5 adds:) …… ruled for …… 6 months. Enlil-bani ruled for 24 years. Zambiya ruled for 3 years. Iter-pica ruled for 4 years. Ur-dul-kuga ruled for 4 years. Suen-magir ruled for 11 years. (ms. P5 adds:) Damiq-ilicu, the son of Suen-magir, ruled for 23 years. 14 kings; they ruled for 203 years (ms. P5 has instead: 225 years and 6 months).

(Mss. P2+L2, L1+N1 and P4+Ha conclude with a summary of the post-diluvian dynasties; the translation of ll. 378-431 uses numerical data from each mss. but follows the wording of P2+L2 and L1+N1)

378-431A total of 39 kings ruled for 14409 + X years, 3 months and 3 1/2 days, 4 times in Kic. A total of 22 kings ruled for 2610 + X years, 6 months and 15 days, 5 times in Unug. A total of 12 kings ruled for 396 years, 3 times in Urim. A total of 3 kings ruled for 356 years, once in Awan. A total of 1 king ruled for 420 years, once in Hamazi.
16 lines missing
A total of 12 (?) kings ruled for 197 (?) years, once in Agade. A total of 21 (ms. P4+Ha has instead: 23) kings ruled for 125 years and 40 days (ms. P4+Ha has instead: 99 years), once in the army of Gutium. A total of 11 (ms. P4+Ha has instead: 16) kings ruled for 159 (ms. P4+Ha has instead: 226) years, once in Isin. There are 11 cities, cities in which the kingship was exercised. A total of 134 (ms. P4+Ha has instead: 139) kings, who altogether ruled for 28876 + X (ms. P4+Ha has instead: 3443 + X) years. 21.


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Edad del Bronce AntiguoI

None of the following predynastic ” antediluvian ” rulers have been verified via archaeological excavations , epigraphical inscriptions , or otherwise. Ninguno de los siguientes  reyes antediluvianos ha sido verificado a través de excavaciones arqueológicas, inscripciones epigráficas, o de otra manera.

It is possible that they correspond to the Early Bronze Age Jemdet Nasr period culture which ended approximately 2900 BC , immediately preceding the dynasts. [ 6 ] [ 7 ]

Es posible que estos correspondan a la época de lJemdet Nasr período , de la Edad del  Bronce antiguo (cultura  Jemdet Nasr período) que terminó alrededor de 2900 aC, justo antes de la dinastías. [6] [7]

The following reigns were measured in Sumerian numerical units known as sars (units of 3600), ners (units of 600), and soss (units of 60). [ 8 ] Los reinados siguientes se miden en unidades numéricas sumeria conocida como el SARS (unidades de 3600), socios (unidades de 600), y soss (unidades de 60). [8]

Ruler Rey Epithet Epíteto Length of reign Tiempo de reinado Approx. dates Aprox. Fechas Comments Comentarios
Predynastic kings -Reyes predinásticos 30th century BCE or earlier 30o siglo II aC, o antes
“After the kingship descended from heaven, the kingship was in Eridug . In Eridug, Alulim became king; he ruled for 28800 years.” “Después de la realeza descendió del cielo, de la realeza fue en Eridug. En Eridug, Alulim se convirtió en rey, que gobernó durante 28.800 años.”
Alulim Alulim 8 sars (28,800 years) 8 SRAS (28.800 años)
Alalngar Alalngar 10 sars (36,000 years) 10 de SRAS (36.000 años)
“Then Eridug fell and the kingship was taken to Bad-tibira .” “Entonces Eridug cayó y el reinado fue llevado a Bad-tibira”.
En-men-lu-ana En-men-lu-ana 12 sars (43,200 years) 12 de SRAS (43.200 años)
En-men-gal-ana En-men-gal-ana 8 sars (28,800 years) 8 SRAS (28.800 años)
Dumuzid, the Shepherd Dumuzid, el Pastor “the shepherd” “El pastor” 10 sars (36,000 years) 10 de SRAS (36.000 años)
“Then Bad-tibira fell and the kingship was taken to Larag .” “Entonces tibira Bad-cayó  y la monarquía fue llevada a Larag”.
En-sipad-zid-ana En-Šipad-zid-ana 8 sars (28,800 years) 8 SRAS (28.800 años)
“Then Larag fell and the kingship was taken to Zimbir .” “Entonces Larag cayó la monarquía y fue llevada a Zimbir”.
En-men-dur-ana En-men-dur-ana 5 sars and 5 ners (21,000 years) 5 SRAS y 5 socios (21.000 años)
“Then Zimbir fell and the kingship was taken to Shuruppag .” “Entonces Zimbir cayó la monarquía y fue llevada a Shuruppag”.
Ubara-Tutu Ubara-Tutu 5 sars and 1 ner (18,600 years) 5 SRAS y 1 NER (18.600 años)
“Then the flood swept over.” “Entonces la inundación barrió″.
Excavations in Iraq have revealed evidence of localized flooding at Shuruppak (modern Tell Fara, Iraq) and various other Sumerian cities. Las excavaciones en Irak han revelado evidencia de inundaciones localizadas en Shuruppak (actual Tell Fara, Irak) y varias otras ciudades sumerias. A layer of riverine sediments, radiocarbon dated to ca. Una capa de sedimentos fluviales, con fecha de radiocarbono a ca. 2900 BCE, interrupts the continuity of settlement, extending as far north as the city of Kish . Polychrome pottery from the Jemdet Nasr period (3000-2900 BCE) was discovered immediately below the Shuruppak flood stratum. [ 9 ] 2900 aC, interrumpe la continuidad de la solución, que se extiende hasta el norte de la ciudad de Kish. Cerámica policromada de la época de la Jemdet Nasr (3000-2900 aC) fue descubierta inmediatamente por debajo del estrato de inundación Shuruppak. [9]

Early Bronze Age II [Editar] Edad de Bronce  Antiguo II

Dynastic Antiguo I y II( Protodinástico I y II)

First Dynasty of Kish Primera Dinastía de Kish
Kish.”
Ngushur Ngushur 1200 years 1200 años
Kullassina-bel Kullassina-bel 960 years 960 años
Nangishlishma Nangishlishma 670 years 670 años
En-tarah-ana En-tarah-ana 420 years 420 años
Babum Babún 300 years 300 años
Puannum Puannum 840 years 840 años
Kalibum Kalibum 960 years 960 años
Kalumum Kalumum 840 years 840 años
Zuqaqip Zuqaqip 900 years 900 años
Atab (or A-ba ) ATAB (o A-BA) 600 years 600 años
Mashda Mashda “the son of Atab” “el hijo de ATAB” 840 years 840 años
Arwium Arwium “the son of Mashda” “el hijo de Mashda” 720 years 720 años
Etana Etana “the shepherd, who ascended to heaven and consolidated all the foreign countries” “El pastor, que ascendió al cielo y consolidó todos los países extranjeros” 1500 years 1500 años
Balih Balih “the son of Etana” “el hijo de Etana” 400 years 400 años
En-me-nuna En-me-nuna 660 years 660 años
Melem-Kish Melem-Kish “the son of En-me-nuna” “el hijo de En-me-nuna” 900 years 900 años
Barsal-nuna Barsal-nuna ( “the son of En-me-nuna” )* ( “El hijo de En-me-nuna”) * 1200 years 1200 años
Zamug Zamug “the son of Barsal-nuna” “el hijo de Barsal-nuna” 140 years 140 años
Tizqar Tizqar “the son of Zamug” “el hijo de Zamug” 305 years 305 años
Ilku Ilku 900 years 900 años
Iltasadum Iltasadum 1200 years 1200 años
En-me-barage-si Si en-me-Barage - “who made the land of Elam submit” “¿Quién hizo la tierra de Elam presentar” 900 years 900 años ca. ca. 2600 BC 2600 a. C. the earliest ruler on the List confirmed independently from epigraphical evidence la primera regla en la lista confirmada de forma independiente de la evidencia epigráfica
Aga of Kish Aga de Kish “the son of En-me-barage-si” “el hijo de En-me-Barage-si” 625 years 625 años ca. ca. 2600 BC 2600 a. C. contemporary with Gilgamesh of Uruk , according to the Epic of Gilgamesh [1] contemporáneo con Gilgamesh de Uruk, de acuerdo con la Epopeya de Gilgamesh [1]
“Then Kish was defeated and the kingship was taken to E-ana .” “Entonces Kish fue derrotado y la realeza fue llevado a E-ana”.
[ edit ] First Dynasty of Uruk [Editar] Primera Dinastía de Uruk
Ruler Rey Epithet Epíteto Length of reign Tiempo de reinado Approx. dates Aprox. Fechas Comments Comentarios
First Dynasty of Uruk Primera Dinastia de Uruk ca. ca. 27th – 26th century BC 27th – siglo 26 a. C.
Mesh-ki-ang-gasher of E-ana Mesh-ki-ang-gasher de E-ana “the son of Utu” “el hijo de Utu” 324 years 324 años
“Mesh-ki-ang-gasher entered the sea and disappeared.” “Mesh-ki-ang-gasher entró en el mar y desapareció.”
Enmerkar Enmerkar “the son of Mesh-ki-ang-gasher, the king of Unug, who built Unug (Uruk)” “el hijo de Mesh-ki-ang-gasher, el rey de Unug, que construyó Unug (Uruk)” 420 years 420 años
Lugalbanda Lugalbanda “the shepherd” “El pastor” 1200 years 1200 años
Dumuzid (Dumuzi) Dumuzid (Dumuzi) “the fisherman whose city was Kuara .” “El pescador, cuya ciudad fue Kuara”.
( “He captured En-me-barage-si single-handed.” )* ( “Él capturó En-me-Barage-si una sola mano.”) *
100 years 100 años ca. ca. 2600 BC 2600 a. C.
Gilgamesh Gilgamesh “whose father was a phantom (?), the lord of Kulaba “, cuyo padre era un fantasma (?), el señor de Kulaba” 126 years 126 años ca. ca. 2600 BC 2600 a. C. contemporary with Aga of Kish , according to the Epic of Gilgamesh [2] contemporáneo con Aga de Kish, de acuerdo a la Epopeya de Gilgamesh [2]
Ur-Nungal Ur-Nungal “the son of Gilgamesh” “el hijo de Gilgamesh” 30 years 30 años
Udul-kalama Udul-Kalama “the son of Ur-Nungal” “el hijo de Ur-Nungal” 15 years 15 años
La-ba’shum La-ba’shum 9 years 9 años
En-nun-tarah-ana En-nun-tarah-ana 8 years 8 años
Mesh-he De malla que “the smith” “el herrero” 36 years 36 años
Melem-ana Melem-ana 6 years 6 años
Lugal-kitun Lugal-kitun 36 years 36 años
“Then Unug was defeated and the kingship was taken to Urim (Ur).” “Entonces Unug fue derrotado y la realeza fue llevado a Urim (Ur).”

Early Bronze Age III ,Edad del Bronce Antigua

Early Dynastic IIIa period , periodo protodinásticos IIIa

[ edit ] First dynasty of Ur , Primera dinastía de Ur
Ruler Rey Epithet Epíteto Length of reign Tiempo de reinado Approx. dates Aprox. Fechas Comments Comentarios
First Dynasty of Ur Primera dinastía de Ur ca. ca. 26th century BC Siglo 26 a. C.
Mesh-Ane-pada Mesh-Ane-Pada 80 years 80 años
Mesh-ki-ang-Nanna Mesh-ki-ang-Nanna “the son of Mesh-Ane-pada” “el hijo de Mesh-Ane-pada” 36 years 36 años
Elulu Elulu 25 years 25 años
Balulu Balulu 36 years 36 años
“Then Urim was defeated and the kingship was taken to Awan .” “Entonces Urim fue derrotado y la realeza fue llevada a Awan.”
Dynasty of Awan,Dinastía de Awan
Ruler Rey Epithet Epíteto Length of reign Tiempo de reinado Approx. dates Aprox. Fechas Comments Comentarios
Dynasty of Awan Dinastía de Awan ca. 26th century BC ca. siglo 26 a. C.
Three kings of Awan Tres reyes de Awan 356 years 356 años
“Then Awan was defeated and the kingship was taken to Kish .” “Entonces Awan fue derrotada y la realeza fue llevada a Kish”.
Second Dynasty of Kish , Segunda Dinastía de Kish
Ruler Rey Epithet Epíteto Length of reign Tiempo de reinado Approx. dates Aprox. Fechas Comments Comentarios
Second Dynasty of Kish Segunda Dinastía de Kish ca. 26th century BC ca. siglo 26 a. C.
Susuda Susuda “the fuller” “la más completa” 201 years 201 años
Dadasig Dadasig 81 years 81 años
Mamagal Mamagal “the boatman” “El barquero” 360 years 360 años
Kalbum Kalbum “the son of Mamagal” “el hijo de Mamagal” 195 years 195 años
Tuge TUGE 360 years 360 años
Men-nuna Men-nuna “the son of Tuge” “el hijo de TUGE” 180 years 180 años
( Enbi-Ishtar ) (Enbi-Ishtar) 290 years 290 años
Lugalngu Lugalngu 360 years 360 años
“Then Kish was defeated and the kingship was taken to Hamazi .” “Entonces Kish fue derrotado y la realeza fue llevadaaa Hamazi”.

Early Dynastic IIIb period, protodinástico IIIb

(ca. 2500 – ca. 2271 BC) (ca. 2500 – ca. 2271 a. C.)

The First Dynasty of Lagash (also ca. 2500 – ca. 2271 BC) is not mentioned in the King List, though it is well known from inscriptions La Primera Dinastía de Lagash (también ca. 2500 – ca. 2271 a. C.) no se menciona en la Lista de los reyes, aunque es bien conocido por las inscripciones

Dynasty of Hamazi [Editar] Dinastía de Hamazi
Ruler Rey Epithet Epíteto Length of reign Tiempo de reinado Approx. dates Aprox. Fechas Comments Comentarios
Dynasty of Hamazi Dinastía de Hamazi ca. 2500 BC ca. 2500 a. C.
Hadanish Hadanish 360 years 360 años
“Then Hamazi was defeated and the kingship was taken to Unug (Uruk).” “Entonces Hamazi fue derrotada y la realeza fue llevadoaa Unug (Uruk)”.
Second Dynasty of Uruk , Segunda Dinastía de Uruk
Ruler Rey Epithet Epíteto Length of reign Tiempo de reinado Approx. dates Aprox. Fechas Comments Comentarios
Second Dynasty of Uruk Segunda Dinastía de Uruk ca. 25th century BC ca. siglo 25 a. C.
En-shag-kush-ana En-peluche-Kush-ana 60 years 60 años said to have conquered parts of Sumer; then Eannatum of Lagash claims to have taken over Sumer, Kish, and all Mesopotamia. Kug-Bau of Kish is said to have gained independence from Lagash, and his Uruk, after Entemena’s death. dice que ha conquistado las partes de Sumer, luego Eannatum de Lagash afirma haber tomado más de Sumeria, Kish, y todos los Mesopotamia. Kug-Bau de Kish, se dice que obtuvo la independencia de Lagash, y su Uruk, después de la muerte de Entemena.
Lugal-kinishe-dudu or Lugal-ure Lugal-kinishe-Dudu o Lugal-URE 120 years 120 años contemporary with Entemena of Lagash contemporáneo con Entemena de Lagash
Argandea Argandea 7 years 7 años
“Then Unug was defeated and the kingship was taken to Urim (Ur).” “Entonces Unug fue derrotada y la realeza fue llevada a Urim (Ur).”
[ edit ] Second Dynasty of Ur [Editar] Segunda dinastía de Ur
Ruler Rey Epithet Epíteto Length of reign Tiempo de reinado Approx. dates Aprox. Fechas Comments Comentarios
Second Dynasty of Ur Segunda dinastía de Ur ca. 25th century BC ca. siglo 25 a. C.
Nanni Nanni 120 years 120 años
Mesh-ki-ang-Nanna II Mesh-ki-ang-Nanna II “the son of Nanni” “el hijo de Nanni” 48 years 48 años
(?) (?) 2 years 2 años
“Then Urim was defeated and the kingship was taken to Adab .” “Entonces Urim fue derrotada y la realeza fue llevada a Adab”.
[ edit ] Dynasty of Adab [Editar] Dinastía de Adab
Ruler Rey Epithet Epíteto Length of reign Tiempo de reinado Approx. dates Aprox. Fechas Comments Comentarios
Dynasty of Adab Dinastía de Adab ca. 25th century BC ca. siglo 25 a. C.
Lugal-Ane-mundu Lugal-Ane-Mundu 90 years 90 años said to have conquered all Mesopotamia from the Persian Gulf to the Zagros Mountains and Elam dice que ha conquistado todos los Mesopotamia desde el Golfo Pérsico a los montes Zagros y Elam
“Then Adab was defeated and the kingship was taken to Mari .” “Entonces Adab fue derrotada y la realeza fue llevada a Mari.”
Dynasty of Mari , Dinastía de Mari
Ruler Rey Epithet Epíteto Length of reign Tiempo de reinado Approx. dates Aprox. Fechas Comments Comentarios
Dynasty of Mari Dinastía de Mari ca. 25th century BC ca. siglo 25 a. C.
Anbu Anbu 30 years 30 años
Anba Anba “the son of Anbu” “el hijo de Anbu” 17 years 17 años
Bazi Bazi “the leatherworker” “El peletero” 30 years 30 años
Zizi of Mari Zizi de Mari “the fuller” “la más completa” 20 years 20 años
Limer Limer “the ‘gudug’ priest” “El ‘gudug” cura “ 30 years 30 años
Sharrum-iter Sharrum-ITER 9 years 9 años
“Then Mari was defeated and the kingship was taken to Kish .” “Entonces Mari fue derrotada y la realeza fue llevada a Kish”.
Third Dynasty of Kish, Tercera Dinastía de Kish
Ruler Rey Epithet Epíteto Length of reign Tiempo de reinado Approx. dates Aprox. Fechas Comments Comentarios
Third Dynasty of Kish Tercera dinastía de Kish ca. 25th century BC ca. siglo 25 a. C.
Kug-Bau (Kubaba) Bum-Bau (Kubaba) “the woman tavern-keeper, who made firm the foundations of Kish” “la taberna de la mujer-portero, que hizo firme los cimientos de Kish” 100 years 100 años the only known woman in the King List; said to have gained independence from En-anna-tum I of Lagash and En-shag-kush-ana of Uruk ; contemporary with Puzur-Nirah of Akshak , according to the later Chronicle of the É-sagila la única mujer conocida en la lista de los reyes, dice que obtuvo la independencia de En-anna-tum I de Lagash y En-Kush-peluche-ana de Uruk; contemporáneo con Puzur-Nirah de Akshak, según la Crónica de la tarde de la E -sagila
“Then Kish was defeated and the kingship was taken to Akshak .” “Entonces Kish fue derrotado y la realeza fue llevada a Akshak”.
Dynasty of Akshak , Dinastía de Akshak
Ruler Regla Epithet Epíteto Length of reign Tiempo de reinado Approx. dates Aprox. Fechas Comments Comentarios
Dynasty of Akshak Dinastía de Akshak ca. 25th – 24th century BC ca. 25a – siglo 24 antes de Cristo
Unzi Unzi 30 years 30 años
Undalulu Undalulu 6 years 6 años
Urur Urur 6 years 6 años
Puzur-Nirah Puzur-Nirah 20 years 20 años contemporary with Kug-Bau of Kish , according to the later Chronicle of É-sagila sagila contemporáneo con Kug-Bau de Kish, de acuerdo con la Crónica de la tarde de la e -
Ishu-Il Ishu-Il 24 years 24 años
Shu-Suen of Akshak Shu-Suen de Akshak “the son of Ishu-Il” “el hijo de Ishu-Il” 7 years 7 años
“Then Akshak was defeated and the kingship was taken to Kish .” “Entonces Akshak fue derrotado y la realeza fue llevada a Kish”.
[ edit ] Fourth Dynasty of Kish [Editar] IV Dinastía de Kish
Ruler Rey Epithet Epíteto Length of reign Tiempo de reinado Approx. dates Aprox. Fechas Comments Comentarios
Fourth Dynasty of Kish IV Dinastía de Kish ca. 24th – 23rd century BC ca. 24a – 23o siglo aC
Puzur-Suen Puzur-Suen “the son of Kug-Bau “el hijo de bum-Bau” 25 years 25 años
Ur-Zababa Ur-Zababa “the son of Puzur-Suen” “el hijo de Puzur-Suen” 400 (6?) years 400 (6?) Años ca. ca. 2300 BC 2300 a. C. according to the king list, Sargon of Akkad was his cup-bearer de acuerdo a la lista rey Sargón de Akkad era su copero
Zimudar Zimudar 30 years 30 años
Usi-watar USI-Watar “the son of Zimudar” “el hijo de Zimudar” 7 years 7 años
Eshtar-muti Eshtar muti - 11 years 11 años
Ishme-Shamash Ishme-Shamash 11 years 11 años
( Shu-ilishu )* (Shu-ilishu) * (69 years)* (69 años) *
Nanniya Nanniya “the jeweller” “el joyero” 7 years 7 años ca. ca. 2303-2296 BC (short) 2303-2296 a. C. (corto)
“Then Kish was defeated and the kingship was taken to Unug (Uruk).” “Entonces Kish fue derrotado y la realeza fue llevada a Unug (Uruk)”.
Third Dynasty of Uruk ,Tercera Dinastía de Uruk
Ruler Rey Epithet Epíteto Length of reign Tiempo de reinado Approx. dates Aprox. Fechas Comments Comentarios
Lugal-zage-si Lugal-Zage-si 25 years 25 años ca. ca. 2296 – 2271 BC ( short ) 2296 – 2271 a. C. (corto) said to have defeated Urukagina of Lagash , as well as Kish and other Sumerian cities, creating a unified kingdom; he in turn was overthrown by Sargon of Akkad dice que ha derrotado Urukagina de Lagash, así como de Kish y otras ciudades sumerias, la creación de un reino unificado, que a su vez fue derrocado por Sargón de Acad
“Then Unug was defeated and the kingship was taken to Agade (Akkad)” “Entonces Unug fue derrotado y la realeza fue llevada a Agade (Akkad)”

Akkadian Empire , Imperio Acadio

Victory stele of Naram-Suen ( Louvre ) Estela de la victoria de Naram-Suen (Louvre)

Dynasty of Akkad,Dinastía de Akkad
Ruler Rey Epithet Epíteto Length of reign Tiempo de reinado Approx. dates Aprox. Fechas Comments Comentarios
Sargon of Akkad Sargón de Akkad “whose father was a gardener, the cupbearer of Ur-Zababa , became king, the king of Agade, who built Agade” “, cuyo padre era un jardinero, el copero de Ur-Zababa, se convirtió en rey, el rey de Acad, que construyó Agade” 40 years 40 años ca. ca. 2270 – 2215 BC ( short ) 2270 – 2215 a. C. (corto) 2334 media
defeated Lugal-zage-si of Uruk , took over Sumer, and created the Akkadian Empire Lugal derrotado-Zage-si de Uruk, se hizo cargo de Sumeria, y creó el imperio acadio
Rimush of Akkad Rimush “the son of Sargon” “el hijo de Sargón” 9 years 9 años ca. ca. 2214 – 2206 BC ( short ) 2214 – 2206 a. C. (corto)
Man-ishtishu Man-ishtishu “the older brother of Rimush, the son of Sargon” “el hermano mayor de Rimush, el hijo de Sargón” 15 years 15 años ca. ca. 2205 – 2191 BC ( short ) 2205 – 2191 a. C. (corto)
Naram-Suen of Akkad Naram-Suen de Akkad “the son of Man-ishtishu” “El Hijo del Hombre-ishtishu” 56 years 56 años ca. ca. 2190 – 2154 BC ( short ) 2190 – 2154 a. C. (corto)
Shar-kali-sharri Shar-kali-sharri “the son of Naram-Suen” “el hijo de Naram-Suen” 25 years 25 años ca. ca. 2153 – 2129 BC ( short ) 2153 – 2129 a. C. (corto)
“Then who was king? Who was the king?” “Entonces el rey que era? ¿Quién era el rey?”
“and the 4 of them ruled for only 3 years” “y el 4 de ellas gobernada por sólo 3 años” ca. ca. 2128 – 2125 BC ( short ) 2128 – 2125 a. C. (corto)
Dudu of Akkad Dudu de Akkad 21 years 21 años ca. ca. 2125 – 2104 BC ( short ) 2125 – 2104 a. C. (corto)
Shu-Durul “the son of Dudu” “el hijo de Dudu” 15 years 15 años ca. ca. 2104 – 2083 BC ( short ) 2104 – 2083 a. C. (corto) Akkad falls to the Gutians Akkad corresponde a los gutis
“Then Agade was defeated and the kingship was taken to Unug (Uruk).” “Entonces Agade fue derrotado y la realeza fue llevada a Unug (Uruk)”.
Fourth Dynasty of Uruk Dinastía IV de Uruk
(Possibly rulers of lower Mesopotamia contemporary with the Dynasty of Akkad) (Es posible que los gobernantes de la Baja Mesopotamia contemporáneo con la dinastía de Akkad)
Ruler Rey Epithet Epíteto Length of reign Tiempo de reinado Approx. dates Aprox. Fechas Comments Comentarios
Fourth Dynasty of Uruk Dinastía IV de Uruk ca. ca. 2091? 2091? – 2061? – 2061? BC ( short ) BC (corto)
Ur-ningin Ur-ningin 7 years 7 años
Ur-gigir Ur-gigir “the son of Ur-ningin” “el hijo de Ur-ningin” 6 years 6 años
Kuda Kuda 6 years 6 años
Puzur-ili Puzur-ILI 5 years 5 años
Ur-Utu (or Lugal-melem ) Ur-Utu (o Lugal-Melem) ( “the son of Ur-gigir” )* ( “El hijo de Ur-gigir”) * 25 years 25 años
“Unug was defeated and the kingship was taken to the army of Gutium .” “Unug fue derrotado y la realeza fue llevado al ejército de Guti”.

Early Bronze Age IV Temprana Edad de Bronce IV

Gutian period [Editar] período guti

The 2nd Dynasty of Lagash (before ca. 2093 – 2046 BC ( short )) is not mentioned in the King List, though it is well known from inscriptions. La 2 ª dinastía de Lagash (antes de ca. 2093 a 2046 a. C. (corto)) no es mencionado en la lista de los reyes, aunque es bien conocido por las inscripciones.

[ edit ] Gutian Rule [Editar] guti artículo
Ruler Rey Epithet Epíteto Length of reign Tiempo de reinado Approx. dates Aprox. Fechas Comments Comentarios
Gutian Rule Guti artículo ca. ca. 2147 – 2050 BC ( short ) 2147 – 2050 a. C. (corto)
“In the army of Gutium, at first no king was famous; they were their own kings and ruled thus for 3 years.” “En el ejército de Guti, en un principio no era famoso rey, sino que fueron sus propios reyes y gobernó así durante 3 años.”
Inkishush Inkishush 6 years 6 años
Zarlagab Zarlagab 6 years 6 años
Shulme (or Yarlagash ) Shulme (o Yarlagash) 6 years 6 años
Silulumesh (or Silulu ) Silulumesh (o Silulu) 6 years 6 años
Inimabakesh (or Duga ) Inimabakesh (o Duga) 5 years 5 años
Igeshaush (or Ilu-An ) Igeshaush (o Ilu-An) 6 years 6 años
Yarlagab Yarlagab 3 years 3 años
Ibate of Gutium Ibate de Guti 3 years 3 años
Yarla (or Yarlangab ) Yarla (o Yarlangab) 3 years 3 años
Kurum Kurum 1 year 1 año
Apilkin Apilkin 3 years 3 años
La-erabum La-erabum 2 years 2 años mace head inscription inscripción maza
Irarum Irarum 2 years 2 años
Ibranum Ibranum 1 year 1 año
Hablum Hablum 2 years 2 años
Puzur-Suen Puzur-Suen “the son of Hablum” “el hijo de Hablum” 7 years 7 años
Yarlaganda Yarlaganda 7 years 7 años foundation inscription at Umma inscripción fundación en Umma
(?) (?) 7 years 7 años Si-um or Si-u? Si-um o Si-U? — foundation inscription at Umma – Inscripción en la Fundación Umma
Tirigan Tirigan 40 days 40 días defeated by Utu-hengal of Uruk derrotado por Utu-hengal de Uruk
“Then the army of Gutium was defeated and the kingship taken to Unug (Uruk).” “Entonces el ejército de los Guti fue derrotado y la realeza  fue adoptadas para Unug (Uruk)”.
Fifth Dynasty of Uruk , Quinta Dinastía de Uruk
Ruler Rey Epithet Epíteto Length of reign Tiempo de gobierno Approx. dates Aprox. Fechas Comments Comentarios
Utu-hengal Utu-hengal conflicting dates (427 years / 26 years / 7 years) fechas conflictivas (427 años / 26 años / 7 años) ca. ca. 2055 – 2048 BC ( short ) 2055 – 2048 a. C. (corto) defeats Tirigan and the Gutians , appoints Ur-Namma governor of Ur Derrota Tirigan y el gutis, nombra Ur-gobernador Namma de Ur
“Then Unug was defeated and the kingship was taken to Urim (Ur).” “Entonces Unug fue derrotado y la realeza fue llevada a Urim (Ur).”

Ur III period [Editar] Ur período III

Sumerian Renaissance “Renacimiento sumerio”
(ca. 2047 – 1940 BC ( short )) (ca. 2047 a 1940 a. C. (corto))
Third Dynasty of Ur ,Tercera dinastía de Ur
Ruler Rey Epithet Epíteto Length of reign Tiempo de reinado Approx. dates Aprox. Fechas Comments Comentarios
Ur-Namma (Ur-Nammu) Ur-Namma (Ur-Nammu) 18 years 18 años ca. ca. 2047 – 2030 BC ( short ) 2047 – 2030 a. C. (corto) defeats Nammahani of Lagash ; contemporary of Utu-hengal of Uruk Derrota Nammahani de Lagash, contemporáneo de Utu-hengal de Uruk,
Shulgi Shulgi “the son of Ur-Namma” “el hijo de Ur-Namma” 46 years 46 años ca. ca. 2029 – 1982 BC ( short ) 2029 – 1982 a. C. (corto) possible lunar/solar eclipse 2005 BC ,posible / eclipse lunsr/solar de 2005 a. C.
Amar-Suena Amar-Suena “the son of Shulgi” “el hijo de Shulgi” 9 years 9 años ca. ca. 1981 – 1973 BC ( short ) 1981 – 1973 a. C. (corto)
Shu-Suen Shu-Suen “the son of Amar-Suena” “el hijo de Amar-Suena” 9 years 9 años ca. ca. 1972 – 1964 BC ( short ) 1972 – 1964 a. C. (corto)
Ibbi-Suen IBI-Suen “the son of Shu-Suen” “el hijo de Shu-Suen” 24 years 24 años ca. ca. 1963 – 1940 BC ( short ) 1963 – 1940 a. C. (corto)
“Then Urim was defeated. The very foundation of Sumer was torn out. The kingship was taken to Isin .” “Entonces Urim fue derrotado. La misma fundación de Sumer fue arrancada. La monarquía fue llevado a Isin.”

Middle Bronze Age I ,Edad del Bronce Medio I

IsinLarsa period , Periodo de IsinLarsa

Independent Amorite states in lower Mesopotamia. Independiente de los Estados amorreo en la Baja Mesopotamia.

The Dynasty of Larsa (ca. 1961 – 1674 BC ( short )) from this period is not mentioned in the King List. La dinastía de Larsa (ca. 1961 a 1674 a. C. (corto)) de este período no se menciona en la lista de los reyes.

Dynasty of Isin, Dinastía de Isin
Ruler Rey Epithet Epíteto Length of reign Tiempo de reinado Approx. dates Aprox. Fechas Comments Comentarios
Dynasty of Isin Dinastía de Isin ca. ca. 1953 – 1730 BC ( short ) 1953 – 1730 a. C. (corto)
Ishbi-Erra Ishbi-Erra 33 years 33 años contemporary of Ibbi-Suen of Ur contemporánea de la IBI-Suen de Ur
Shu-ilishu Shu-ilishu “the son of Ishbi-Erra” “el hijo de Ishbi-Erra” 20 years 20 años
Iddin-Dagan Iddin-Dagan “the son of Shu-ilishu” “el hijo de Shu-ilishu” 20 years 20 años
Ishme-Dagan Ishme-Dagan “the son of Iddin-Dagan” “el hijo de Iddin-Dagan” 20 years 20 años
Lipit-Eshtar Lipit-Eshtar “the son of Ishme-Dagan (or Iddin-Dagan)” “el hijo de Ishme-Dagan (o Iddin-Dagan)” 11 years 11 años contemporary of Gungunum of Larsa contemporáneas de Gungunum de Larsa
Ur-Ninurta Ur-Ninurta ( “the son of Ishkur , may he have years of abundance, a good reign, and a sweet life” )* ( “El hijo de Ishkur, puede que con años de abundancia, un reinado bien, y una vida dulce”) * 28 years 28 años Contemporary of Abisare of Larsa Contemporáneas de la Abisare de Larsa
Bur-Suen Bur-Suen “the son of Ur-Ninurta” “el hijo de Ur-Ninurta” 5 years 5 años
Lipit-Enlil Lipit-Enlil “the son of Bur-Suen” “el hijo de Bur-Suen” 5 years 5 años
Erra-imitti Erra-imitti 8 years 8 años
Enlil-bani Enlil-Bani 24 years 24 años contemporary of Sumu-la-El of Babylon . contemporáneas de sumu-la-El de Babilonia. During his reign, the king’s gardener, to celebrate the New Year was named ‘king for a day’ then sacrificed, the “king” died during the celebration; Enlil-Bani remained on the throne. Durante su reinado, jardinero del rey, para celebrar el Año Nuevo fue nombrado “rey por un día ‘y luego sacrificados, el” rey “, murió durante la celebración, Enlil-Bani permaneció en el trono.
Zambiya Zambiya 3 years 3 años contemporary of Sin-Iqisham of Larsa contemporáneas de la Sin-Iqisham de Larsa
Iter-pisha Iter-Pisha 4 years 4 años
Ur-du-kuga Ur-du-kuga 4 years 4 años
Suen-magir Suen-magir 11 years 11 años
( Damiq-ilishu )* (Damiq-ilishu) * ( “the son of Suen-magir” )* ( “El hijo de Suen-magir”) * (23 years)* (23 años) *

* These epithets or names are not included in all versions of the king list. * Estos epítetos o nombres no están incluidos en todas las versiones de la lista de los reyes


Filed under: Arqueologia,ARTÍCULOS,General,H. Próximo Oriente,R. Próximo Oriente

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