El tell de Megido/Megiddo,Israel, desde el aire.
EL PROBLEMA DE LAS FUENTES ANTIGUAS Y UNA SOLA BATALLA:LA DE MEGIDO DE TUTMOSIS III
Dedicado a los que “quieren saber más” de…y no dudan nada.
Como dice Karr, ” a veces me siento tentado de admirar la gran seguridad que tienen de sus conocimientos mis colegas, lo malo es que su seguridad deriva de su desconocimiento”.
¡Feliz Año 2010¡ Y que os gusten los “millones de enemigos” que lucharon contra Tutmosis III en Canaán.
Megiddo is the jewel in the crown of biblical archaeology. Strategically perched above the most important land route in the ancient Near East, the city dominated international traffic for over 6,000 years â€“ from ca. 7,000 B.C.E. through to biblical times. As civilizations came and went, succeeding settlements at ancient Megiddo were built on the ruins of their predecessors, creating a multi-layered archaeological legacy that abounds in unparalleled treasures that include monumental temples, lavish palaces, mighty fortifications, and remarkably-engineered water systems.
The intresting part about this place is that it is shaped, formed and created like an altar (ritualistic sacrificial altar).
* only site in Biblical lands with remains of 30 cities built one on top of each other.
* scene of many battles that decided the fate of nations and empires.
* guards the most important highway of the ancient world, the Via Maris that connected Egypt with Mesopotamia.
Figurita de marfil,Megido,Israel
* linked to numerous great figures in world history, among them King Solomon of Israel and King Josiah of late-monarchic Judah, Pharaohs Thutmose III, Shishak and Necho of Egypt and Kings Tiglath-pileser III and Esar haddon Assyria â€” and the Antichrist.
(Tel Aviv University)
Situación de Megiddo
Megido (hebreo: מגידו), Mageddo o Meguiddó, es una colina de Israel, situada 90 km al norte de Jerusalén y 31 km al sudoeste de la ciudad de Haifa. Se conoce también como Har Megiddo (hebreo) y Tell al-Mutesellim (árabe).
Ubicación de Megiddo/Megido,Israel
Excavaciones del tell de Megido,Israel(Wikipedia)
|http://www.bibleplaces.com/newsletter/hr/Megiddo_tell_aerial_from_southeast,_tb121704999pp.jpgThe water tunnel at Megiddo dating from the time of Solomon. King Solomon was interested in the strategic value of Megiddo so he fortified it, building this water tunnel in the event of a siege (Kings I 9:15). However, during Solomon’s time, Megiddo was primarily an administrative center.|
En tiempos antiguos, Megido era una ciudad importante, apareciendo su nombre en jeroglíficos egipcios y en escritura cuneiforme: en las “cartas de Amarna“; gozaba de una importante situación estratégica, pues dominaba una vía de comunicación primordial en el Valle de Jezreel, a la salida de los desfiladeros del Carmelo, al nortoccidente de Tanak y en el camino de esta ciudad al Tabor. Era una de las estaciones principales en el camino que seguían los ejércitos en dirección de Egipto a Siria. Tras la ocupación por los hebreos, fue situada en el territorio de Isacar, pero atribuida a la tribu de Manasés.
Sobre su situación, Jakut, geógrafo árabe del siglo XII, dice que “Ledjun es la antigua ciudad de Mageddo que recibió, bajo la dominación romana, el nombre de Legio“. En sus inmediaciones se entablaron tres célebres batallas, una durante el siglo XV a. C., de las más antiguas documentada, y otras dos, en los años 609 adC y 1918. Es un valioso lugar arqueológico, un montículo con 26 estratos de ruinas de antiguos asentamientos, conocido por motivos históricos, teológicos y geográficos.
Según se narra en el Antiguo Testamento, este paraje, el Valle de Jezreel, será el escenario donde acontecerá el Apocalipsis o la batalla final entre las fuerzas de la luz, dirigidas por Jesucristo, y las de las tinieblas, guiadas por Satanás o el Anticristo, durante el “Fin del Mundo”, la batalla definitiva de Armagedón (Apocalipsis 16:16.)
La expresión griega Har Ma·ge·don, tomada del hebreo y vertida “Armagedón” por muchos traductores, significa “Montaña de Megido”, o “Montaña de Asamblea de Tropas”.
Puerta de la fortificación de Megido,Israel
- ↑ a b El contenido de este artículo incorpora material del tomo 32 de la Enciclopedia Universal Ilustrada Europeo-Americana (Espasa), con copyright anterior a 1927, el cual se encuentra en el dominio público.
This page briefly reviews the Egyptian textual information relating to Thutmose III’s victory over Canaanite kings near Megiddo. In the New Chronology, this battle is of no especial significance. Conventionally, however, with an early Exodus at the start of the Hyksos era, the possibility of matching this with Barak’s involvement with the defeat of Jabin and Sisera arises.
The following map shows the route Thutmose III chose to approach his adversaries, together with other salient features nearby. The pass he chose to lead his army along had been considered unsuitable for a large body of men – part of the Egyptian texts lay stress on the Pharaoh’s skill and judgement in insisting on this in the face of reluctance. There was a vulnerable time when the Egyptian army began to emerge into the Jezreel Valley, as only a small fraction of the whole was present at first. It is something of a mystery why the Canaanite coalition did not take advantage of this – perhaps it was assumed to be only a small diversionary tactic while the main body of men followed the major routes round towards either Taanach or Megiddo. The account in Judges describes Barak and his men descending from Mount Tabor, on the northern side of the Valley of Jezreel. This was of course from an entirely different direction to the advance of the much more powerful Egyptian force. If Barak was present at the battle, the Egyptian sources do not record this, their main purpose being to highlight the skill and prowess of Thutmose himself.
The following map shows the route Thutmose III chose to approach his adversaries, together with other salient features nearby. The pass he chose to lead his army along had been considered unsuitable for a large body of men – part of the Egyptian texts lay stress on the Pharaoh’s skill and judgement in insisting on this in the face of reluctance. There was a vulnerable time when the Egyptian army began to emerge into the Jezreel Valley, as only a small fraction of the whole was present at first. It is something of a mystery why the Canaanite coalition did not take advantage of this – perhaps it was assumed to be only a small diversionary tactic while the main body of men followed the major routes round towards either Taanach or Megiddo.
The account in Judges describes Barak and his men descending from Mount Tabor, on the northern side of the Valley of Jezreel. This was of course from an entirely different direction to the advance of the much more powerful Egyptian force. If Barak was present at the battle, the Egyptian sources do not record this, their main purpose being to highlight the skill and prowess of Thutmose himself.
1.The Armant Stela
This is a red-granite stela found at Armant in Upper Egypt
His majesty made no delay in proceeding to the land of Djahi …
[Proceeding] from Memphis to slay the countries of the wretched Retenu … His majesty entered upon that road which becomes very narrow, as the first of his entire army, while every country had gathered, standing prepared at its mouth … The enemy quailed, fleeing headlong to their town, together with their prince who was in …
Thutmosis III son of Thuthmosis II by a lesser wife Isis 1490-1436 ANET 22-23, 234-245, 373-375, 446-447; Annals COS 2.2A, pp. 7-13 ANET B 234-238, A-D 238-240 Gebel Barka Stela COS 2.2B, pp. 14-18 ANET C 238, D-C 240
Armant Stela COS 2.2C, pp. 18-19 ANET A 234
ANEP 312, 313, 387
15 campaigns in “Asia”. Confronted a herd of 120 elephants. Prevailed over Mitanni
1468 Battle of Megiddo–120 captured towns on wall at Karnak ANET 234-238; COS 2.2A, pp. 11-13
above and on left
2. The Annals at Karnak
The early parts of the relevant section may be interpreted in several ways, but could mean that an Egyptian garrison in northern Palestine – possibly at Megiddo itself – had been driven out and withdrawn to Sharuhen
His majesty ordered a conference with his victorious army, speaking as follows: “That [wretched] enemy of Kadesh has come and has entered into Megiddo. He is [there] at this moment. He has gathered to him the princes of [every] foreign country [which had been] loyal to Egypt, as well as (those) as far as Naharin and M[itanni] …”
There follows a debate about the road to choose, and the hazards of the one chosen
Then his majesty issued forth [at the head of] his army, which was [prepared] in many ranks. [He had not met] a single [enemy. Their] southern wing was in Taanach, [while their] northern wing was on the south side [of the Qina Valley.]
Now while the rear of his majesty’s victorious army was (still) at [the town] of Aruna, the vanguard had come out into the [Qi]na Valley … His majesty reached the south of Megiddo on the bank of the Qina brook … The southern wing of his majesty’s army was at a hill south of [the] Qina [brook], and the northern wing was to the northwest of Megiddo, while his majesty was in their centre.
Thereupon his majesty prevailed over them at the head of his army. Then they saw his majesty prevailing over them, and they fled headlong [to] Megiddo with faces of fear. They abandoned their horses and their chariots of gold and silver, so that someone might draw them [up] into this town by hoisting on their garments … Then their horses and their chariots of gold and silver were captured as an easy [prey. Ranks] of then were lying stretched out on their backs light fish in the bight of a net.
There followed a siege of about 7 months, after which the occupants surrendered and handed over hostages and tribute. During this time other towns to the north of Megiddo were taken. The list of booty from Megiddo includes:
340 living prisoners and 83 hands; 2041 horses, 191 foals, 6 stallions, and [...] colts; 1 chariot worked with gold, with a body of gold, belonging to that enemy, [a] fine chariot worked with gold belonging to the Prince of [Megiddo] … and 892 chariots of his wretched army – total 924;
Gracias a los ‘Anales’ tenemos una gran descripción de la batalla y, sobretodo, un calendario bastante ajustado de las diferentes etapas que se produjeron.
Tras enterarse de la gran coalición asíatica que se ha formado, Tutmosis III decide ir hacia Megiddo, y las diferentes etapas de esta batalla serán:
día 10 del 4º mes de Peret:
El ejército egipcio sale de Menfis
día 4 del 1er mes de Shemu (24 días más tarde)
El ejército egipcio llega a Gaza
día 9 del 1er mes de Shemu
El ejército sale de Gaza
día 16 del 1er mes de Shemu
Llegan a Yehem y tiene lugar el gran consejo que elegirá la ruta de llegada a Megiddo
día 19 del 1er mes de Shemu
El ejército egipcio se interna en el Desfiladero de Aruna en dirección a Megiddo
día 21 del 1er mes de Shemu (41 días después de la salida de Menfis)
Tiene lugar la Batalla de Megiddo
According to Thutmose III’s Hall of Annals in the Temple of Amun at Karnak, the battle occurred on “Year 23, I Shemu [day] 21, the exact day of the feast of the new moon” – a lunar date. This date corresponds to May 9, 1457 BC based on Thutmose III’s accession in 1479 BC. After victory in battle, however, his troops stopped to plunder the enemy and the enemy was able to escape into Megiddo.. Thutmose was forced to besiege the city instead, but he finally succeeded in conquering it after a siege of seven or eight months (see Siege of Megiddo).
This campaign drastically changed the political situation in the ancient Near East. By taking Megiddo, Thutmose gained control of all of northern Canaan
, and the Syrian princes were obligated to send tribute and their own sons as hostages to Egypt. Beyond the Euphrates, the Assyria
, and Hittite
kings all gave Thutmose gifts, which he alleged to be “tribute” when he recorded it on the walls of Karnak. The only noticeable absence is Mitanni, which would bear the brunt of the following Egyptian campaigns into Asia.
Siete meses más tarde
Egipto en época de Tutmosis III
3.La estela de Gebel Barkal
En cambio, en la Estela de Gebel Barkal (año 47) hay un poco más de información y se refiere a la coalición antiegipcia. El texto se encuentra en las línes 19 y 20 de esta estela:
Él me cedió las tierras extranjeras de Retenu durante la primera expedición. Ellos vinieron para enfrentarse con Mi Majestad, siendo millones de hombres, cientos de miles de los mejores de todas las tierras extranjeras, montados en sus carros, 330 príncipes, cada uno con su ejército. Estaban en el Valle de Qina, preparados para la batalla en un estrecho desfile.
Foto de la estela, que está en el Museum of Fine Arts de Boston:
The Barkal Stela
This granite stela, found at Gebel Barkal, summarises the accomplishments of Thutmose III’s life
He [Amon-Re] entrusted to me the foreign countries of Retenu on the first campaign, when they had come out to engage with my majesty, being millions and hundred-thousands of men, the individuals of every foreign country, waiting in their chariots – 330 princes, every one of them having his (own) army.
When they were in the Qina Valley … good fortune befell me among them, when my majesty attacked them. Then they fled immediately or fell prostrate. When they entered into Megiddo, my majesty shut them up for a period up to 7 months … Then that enemy and the princes who were with him sent out to my majesty, with all their children carrying abundant tribute: gold and silver, all their horses which were with them, their great chariots of gold and silver, as well as those which were plain, all their coats of mail, their bows, their arrows, and all their weapons of warfare.
En este mapa sacado de la pagina Megiddo.tau.ac.il se observa la localización de Megiddo y la del estrecho de Aruna aparecen en rojo las otras alternativas y en verde la que eligio Tutmosis.
2 Jabin, a king of Canaan who reigned in Hazor. The commander of his army was Sisera who lived in Harosheth Haggoyim … 3 he had 900 iron chariots.
4 Deborah …6 sent for Barak … “lead the way to Mount Tabor.7 I will lead Sisera, the commander of Jabin’s army, with his chariots and troops to the Kishon River.” …
12 When they told Sisera that Barak … had gone up to Mount Tabor,13 Sisera gathered together his 900 iron chariots and all the men with him, from Harosheth Haggoyim to the Kishon River.
14 So Barak went down Mount Tabor followed by 10,000 men. 15 At Barak’s advance, Yahweh routed Sisera and all his chariots and army by the sword, and Sisera abandoned his chariot and fled on foot. 23 On that day God subdued Jabin, the Canaanite king, before the Israelites. 24And the hand of the Israelites grew stronger and stronger against Jabin, the Canaanite king, until they destroyed him.
19 Kings came, they fought,
the kings of Canaan fought
at Taanach by the waters of Megiddo,
but they carried off no silver, no plunder.
20 From the heavens the stars fought,
From their courses they fought against Sisera.
21 The River Kishon swept them away.
Both Thutmose III’s battle and Barak’s took place in broadly the same location. Using the conventional chronology with an Exodus and Conquest at the start of the Hyksos era, the account of Barak is at broadly the same time as Thutmose III. There are certain similarities and differences between the accounts:
|√ Similarities √||× Differences ×|
|The battle area was broadly the same, and Megiddo, Taanach, and the River Kishon figure prominently in both accounts||Neither account recognises the existence of the other party|