Etiqueta: amenhotep III



9 nov 09

http://sobreegipto.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/08/amarna.jpg

Palacio norte de Amarna

De esta época de la Dinastía XVIII egipcia  datan, principalmente, las llamadas Cartas de Amarna, la correspondencia que se mandaba a los faraones Amenhotep III, Akhenatón y Tutankhamón, aunque la mayoría procede del reinado del segundo. Son altamente esclarecedoras sobre la política exterior en particular de ese período y en general de todo Egipto, al ser la única muestra que poseemos de la diplomacia egipcia. Están escritas en acadio, la lingua franca de la época y usaban un tipo de escritura cuneiforme.

Amarna: the cuneiform tablets, background information

(EA stands for El Amarna; the numbering of the letters in Knudtzon 1907/ Knudtzon 1915)

The letters are written in cuneiform, most in Akkadian language, with only a few in other languages (EA 15 – Assyrian; EA 24 – Hurrian, EA 31-32 – Hittite)

382 tablets: 32 are different kind of texts, myths and epics, syllabaries, lexical texts; 350 are letters

  • 203 in Berlin (Vorderasiatisches Museum)
  • 49 or 50 in the Cairo Museum
  • 95 in the British Museum
  • 22 in the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford (found by Petrie)
  • 7 in the Louvre
  • 9 in private collections
  • 2 in the Metropolitan Museum New York (acquired by M. Chassinat)

over 40 letters came from powers that dealt with Egypt on a basis of equality:
Babylonia (EA 1-14), Assyria (15-16), Mittani (EA 17, 19-30), Arzawa (EA 31-32), Alashia (33-40) and Hatti (EA 41-44)

the other letters are from vassals in Syria-Palestine

http://sobreegipto.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/06/amarna.jpg

bibliography:

El faraónAkhenaton haciendo una ofrenda

Ascalon

Puerta y muro septentrional de Ascalon. Se nota bien el de mediados de la era del Bronce, vuelto a usar para la defensa de Ascalon hasta el periodo de las cruzadas. Cerca de la puerta se encontro una figurilla de un toro de plata (10.5 cm x 11 cm), Imagen del dios cananeo Baal.


Ascalon: interior de la puerta de mediados de la era del Bronce protegida por torres; la estructura era de ladrillos y formando un arco. Ascalon, del Bronce tardio, es conocida por las listas de Tutmosis III, Amenofis III y Ramses II ; aparece en siete cartas de el-Amarna escritas por el rey Widyia.
Plano general de Tell al-Khadra, Ascalon. Ciudad portuaria y comercial de fines del 2o milenio a.C., era famosa en la epoca clasica por los palacios, los templos (a Dagon, Apolo, Afrodita Celeste, Atargatis) y los jardines.
1. Puerta cananea
2. Basilica
3. Bouleuterion
4. Tell antiguo
5. Restos de las murallas sobre el mar
6. « Pozo de la Paz »
7. Iglesia de Santa Maria

Veamos algunas:

“Cuando mi hermano, Nimmureya (Nebmaatra [es decir, Amenhotep III]), marchó a su destino, se me informó de ello. Cuando escuché lo que se me contaba, se prohibió cocinar nada en las cazuelas. Aquel día lloré y me quedé sentado. Aquel día no tomé ni comida ni agua. Me lamenté, diciendo:<<Muera yo también, o que mueran diez mil en mi país, y también en el de mi hermano, pero que mi hermano, a quien amo y me ama, siga vivo mientras existan el cielo y la tierra>>. Pero cuando me dijeron que Napjureya (Neferjeperura [es decir, Amenhotep IV/Ajenatón]), el hijo mayor de Nimmureya y Tiy, su principal esposa, está ejerciendo la realeza en su lugar, entonces hablé de esta manera: <<Nimmureya, mi hermano, no esta muerto. Napjureya, su hijo mayor, ejerce ahora la realeza en su lugar. Nada en absoluto va a cambiar de cómo era antes” Tushratta, rey de Mitanni.

Una carta del rey de ¿Chipre? a Ajenatón

Una carta del rey de ¿Chipre? a Akhenatón

Resulta altamente curioso el lenguaje que usa el rey de los hurritas, pareciendo un mero tuteo al lado de las rimbombantes expresiones de los textos de los templos, casi comode vendedores ambulantes. En esta carta se puede observar un intento casi desesperado de tener una buena relación con el nuevo faraón.

“Que mi hermano me envíe mucho oro… En el país de mi hermano el oro es tan abundante como el polvo. Que mi hermano no me cause ninguna aflicción” Tushratta, rey de Mitanni.

Según parece, a Tushratta se le habían antojado dos estatuas de oro macizo de él mismo y de su hija Tadujepa y se las pidió al rey a cambio de la mano de su hija. Ante la negativa de éste, decidió escribir a la reina madre Tiy.

“Tú eres la única que sabe que yo siempre mostré amor por tu esposo, y que tu esposo, por otra parte, siempre me mostró su amor. Que tu hijo no me cause ningún tipo de pesar. Que me trate diez veces mejor de lo que hizo su padre, con amor y pruebas de su estima” Tushratta, rey de Mitani.

Aunque según parece, ni siquiera le sirvió escribir a la reina madre Tiy, por lo que escribió, en términos bastante duros, tratándose de correspondencia diplomática, a Akhenatón.

“El asunto de mi hermano se ha convertido ahora en una cuestión de querella. ¿Por qué razón mi hermano ha (…). Él es un hombre y ha ocupado el trono de su padre, ahora convertido en dios” Tushratta, rey de Mitani.

Aunque Tushratta no era el único que tenía problemas con Akhenatón ,ya que Subiluliuma, el rey de los hititas, también tuvo algunas querellas con el faraón.

http://fontes.lstc.edu/~rklein/images/amarna.jpg

Carta desde Hebrón

“Y ahora, con respecto a la tablilla que me enviaste, ¿por qué colocaste tu nombre por en cima del mío? ¿Quién es ahora el que enturbia nuestra relación? ¿Es semejante conducta la práctica aceptada? Hermano mío, ¿me has escrito con la paz en la mente?” Subiluliuma, rey de Hatti.

En todas estas cartas se puede apreciar  claramente una cosa: a Akhenatón no le importaba nada la política exterior y consideraba a los otros reyes inferiores a él.También se puede observar una curiosidad: en ninguna de ellas aparece una sola mención ni a Nefertiti ni a Semenekhkara, el misterioso corregente de Akhenatón. ¿Por qué?

  • Porque esta omisión no sea más que fruto de la casualidad.
  • Porque ambos poseyeran un archivo distinto al del rey.
  • Porque ni Semenekhkara ni Nefertiti recibieran ninguna correspondencia, cosa extraña, ya que hasta la reina madre Tiyi la recibía.

Las tablillas cuneiformes de  El-Amarna

En 1887 cerca de 350 arcillas las tabletas fueron encontradas en El Amarna, el sitio de Akhetatón capital de Akhenatón. La mayoría de éstos ahora están en los museos europeos (200 en Berlín, 80 en el museo británico y veinte en Oxford). Se escriben en caracteres cuneiformes en la lengua diplomática del día, Akkadian. La mayoría de las letras se fechan a los reinados de Amenhotep III (1402-1364) y Akhenatn (Amenhotep IV, 1350-1334).
Reflejan la correspondencia animada entre la administración egipcia y sus representantes en Canaan y Amurru y el estado de asuntos internacionales entre Egipto y las energías principales de el Oriente Medio, de Babylonia, de Mitanni y de Assyria, y de los pocos países tales como Arzawa en Anatolia occidental.
Cinco tabletas cuneiformes fueron encontradas el nombrar de Tushratta, de un rey de Mitanni que era suegro a Amenhotep III y Akhenaten, otros cinco del rey babilónico Kadashman-Enlil y algunas letras que mencionaban por nombre al rey de Kassite de Babylonia Burnaburiash, y del rey de Arzawa.
Los reyes de los paises importantes hablaron con el faraón de igual a igual  , llamándolo hermano y casando a menudo una princesa con él. Los faraones  por otra parte nunca consideraron a reyes extranjeros como  sus iguales: no se dio en esta éoca ninguna princesa egipcia  a un príncipe extranjero.

Petrie located the building in which the tablets were found and finally uncovered some further tablets.

cuneiform tablets published by Petrie, click on the image
(Petrie 1894: pl. XXXI)

further information


Los reyes de las ciudades cananeas  y sirias bajo dominio  egipcio  se postran ante el faraón  – siete veces y siete veces, de rodillas .

, p.293

Una tablilla de Lakhish

Algo de la correspondencia Egipcio-Canaanita sobrevivió en Canaan


Estas tablillas de Retenu y de Canaan documentan el decaimiento de la influencia egipcia en  Levante, cómo los partidarios del status quo fueron substituidos,  los dispositivos por su zona  meridional. Los reyes locales abogaron por la ayuda egipcia. Sus pueblos estaban ocasionalmente representados aparentemente por un consejo

y ahora un Dunip, su ciudad llora, y ella los rasgones está funcionando, y no hay ayuda para nosotros. Por 20 años hemos estado enviando a nuestro señor, el rey, el rey de Egipto, pero no ha venido a nosotros una palabra de nuestro señor, no uno. W.M.Flinders Petrie una historia de Egipto , 1924, parte dos

Primary Source Bibliography:The Amarna Letters — Amenhotep III, Akhenaten, Smenkhkare, Tutankhamun, and Ay.

Moran, W.
1992     The Amarna Letters. Maryland: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
Translations of the entire extant foreign correspondence of the Amarna pharaohs, with notes and
commentary.

Secondary Sources:

Cohen, R. & Westbrook, R.
2000    Introduction: The Amarna System. Pp. 1-12 in Cohen & Westbrook, eds., Amarna Diplomacy. Maryland:
The Johns Hopkins University Press.
A brief introduction to the ancient Near East as represented in the Amarna letters.

Moran, W.
1992     The Amarna Letters. Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Translations of the entire extant foreign correspondence of the Amarna pharaohs, with notes and
commentary.

Murnane, W.
2000     Imperial Egypt and the Limits of Power. Pp. 101-111 in Cohen & Westbrook, eds., Amarna Diplomacy.
Maryland: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
A brief overview of the structure of the Egyptian empire.

Redford, D. B.
1992     Egypt, Canaan and Israel in Ancient Times. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
A detailed account of the history of Egypt and its relationship with the rest of the Near East
throughout ancient history.

Rib-Addi of Byblos to Akhenaton EA 75, 79, 137

Abdu-Heba, ruler of Jerusalem; supported by Nubian mercenaries 1352-1336.  Amarna #286 from Abdu-Heba
Amarna #287 from Abdu-Heba

Amarna #298 from
Yapahu of Gezer warns of insurgency

Amarna #244 from Biridiya of Megiddo complains of Lab’ayu’s attacks; #365 trying to improve his standing

Amarna #365 from
Biridiya

Lab’ayu, ruler of Shechem justifies his behavior

Background:

The Amarna letters, a unique corpus of documents from the Egyptian New Kingdom, were discovered in the late 1880s by Egyptian peasants (Moran 1992: xiii). As soon as their authenticity was confirmed and Egyptologists were able to evaluate their contents, it became clear that the stash of clay tablets represented one of the most important historical sources on the socio-political environment of the ancient Near East.

Guerrero shardano

The Amarna letters represent the diplomatic correspondence between the pharaohs of the Amarna period and their contemporaries in Canaan, Mesopotamia, Anatolia and the Aegean. The earliest of the letters date from late in the reign of Amenhotep III, and the latest date from the reign of Ay, spanning a period from c. 1386-1321 BCE (Moran 1992: xxxix). The majority of the letters date to the reign of Akhenaten, the monotheistic pharaoh.
The Amarna letters provide an interesting picture of the ancient world at the crest of the Egyptian empire. At this time, the Near East was dominated by a group of “Great Kings” — the Egyptian pharaoh, the king of Mitanni, the king of Babylonia, the king of Assyria, and the king of the Hittites. The Great Kings are represented in about 50 of the remaining letters (Cohen & Westbrook 2000: 6-7). Two independent states, not quite of Great King status, are also represented in the letters. One of these is Arzawa, and the other is Alashiya, generally identified with Cyprus (Cohen & Westbrook 2000: 7-8).
There were also numerous city-states under the influence of the Great Kings. The rulers of these city-states were referred to as “mayors” by the Egyptians, and they essentially served as vassals to the Great Kings (Murnane 2000: 107). The correspondence between these vassals and the Egyptian king generally consists of requests for aid or affirmations of loyalty. It is in the vassal correspondence that the Sea Peoples appear most frequently.
The Amarna letters provide the earliest historical evidence of the Sea Peoples. The ethnic groups now classified as Sea Peoples mentioned in the Amarna letters are the Shardana, the Danuna and the Lukka. The letters to be examined below come from three different authors: Rib-Hadda, Mayor of Gubla, Abi-Milku, Mayor of Tyre, and the King of Alashiya.

The Shardana:

A type of person referred to as “Shirdanu” appears in three of the extant letters, all of them from Rib-Hadda of Gubla (or Byblos).  Moran (1992: 393) remarks that this term “probably has nothing to do with” the Shardana of later Egyptian texts. However, he makes no explanation of this statement. At any rate, based on the striking similarity in the form of the two words, it seems unwise to so casually disregard any possibility of a connection.
EA 81 (Moran 1992: 150-151) is a plea from Rib-Hadda to the Egyptian pharaoh (probably Akhenaten) for aid in a dispute with ‘Abdi-Ashirta, the ruler of Amurru and another vassal of the Egyptians. Rib-Hadda accuses his opponent of luring away his followers and inciting them to attack their own ruler. Rib-Hadda pleads with Akhenaten to send archers so that he can defend himself not only from ‘Abdi-Ashirta and his defectors, but also from the increasingly unhappy peasantry. In this letter, Rib-Hadda states that a Shirdanu of his acquaintance has run away to join ‘Abdi-Ashirta. The context of the remark suggests that the Shirdanu were perhaps some type of mercenary soldiers working for the vassals of Egypt.
EA 122 and 123 (Moran 1992: 201-202) are two different versions of the same letter, so they need not be discussed separately. Again, as in EA 81, they concern Rib-Hadda’s plea for aid against an attacker. This time the offender is the commissioner Pihura. Pihura has captured three Canaanites and slain a number of Shirdanu. Rib-Hadda demands that Akhenaten help him protect himself and also return the three men that Pihura has brought as captives into Egypt. Again, the exact role of the Shirdanu is not clear, but it seems that they might have been acting in some military capacity.

The Danuna:

The Danuna appear in only one letter, EA 151 (Moran 1992: 238-239), written by Abi-Milku of Tyre. The letter contains a typical demand for aid against an attacker (Zimredda of Sidon). Abi-Milku then goes on to ask for wood and water, two resources for which Tyre depended on mainland Phoenicia. Finally, in response to a query from the pharaoh, Abi-Milku summarizes current events in Canaan.
In this section of the letter, Abi-Milku states that “the king of Danuna has died” and has been peacefully succeeded by his brother. This letter suggests that the Danuna were a significant political entity, governed by a king who controlled a specific territory. He goes on to describe the destruction of the palace at Ugarit by fire — an interesting historical reference to the numerous destructions that characterize the archaeological picture of the end of the Late Bronze Age.

The Lukka:

A group called the Lukki appears in a single letter from the unnamed king of Alashiya to an Amarna pharaoh (EA 38; Moran 1992: 111-112). Since only one side of the correspondence is preserved, it is difficult to evaluate the exact nature of the dispute between the two kings. However, apparently the Egyptian king has accused some Alashiyans of attacking Egyptian territory in cooperation with Lukki. The king of Alashiya defends himself by saying that “men of Lukki, year by year, seize villages in my own country.” This fits in well with the later picture of the Sea Peoples as wandering raiders.

Conclusion:

The Amarna letters give us a valuable glimpse at the early history of the Sea Peoples. For the most part, the picture of the Sea Peoples in the Amarna letters is confirmed by later historical information. There is documentation from the time of Rameses II of the Shardana as mercenaries of the Egyptians, and the Lukka were later known for their piracy and fighting prowess (Redford 1992: 243). The reference to the Danuna is most interesting for the light it sheds on the people’s social system before the end of the Bronze Age.

http://fontes.lstc.edu/~rklein/Documents/lb.htm

Amarna Letters ANET 483-490; COS 3.92A-G, pp.  237-242

Letters from the king of Alasiya (Cyprus) EA 35; EA 38 Amarna #35 from Alashiya (Cyprus)

Amarna: the cuneiform tablets, background information

(EA stands for El Amarna; the numbering of the letters in Knudtzon 1907/ Knudtzon 1915)

The letters are written in cuneiform, most in Akkadian language, with only a few in other languages (EA 15 – Assyrian; EA 24 – Hurrian, EA 31-32 – Hittite)

382 tablets: 32 are different kind of texts, myths and epics, syllabaries, lexical texts; 350 are letters

  • 203 in Berlin (Vorderasiatisches Museum)
  • 49 or 50 in the Cairo Museum
  • 95 in the British Museum
  • 22 in the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford (found by Petrie)
  • 7 in the Louvre
  • 9 in private collections
  • 2 in the Metropolitan Museum New York (acquired by M. Chassinat)

over 40 letters came from powers that dealt with Egypt on a basis of equality:
Babylonia (EA 1-14), Assyria (15-16), Mittani (EA 17, 19-30), Arzawa (EA 31-32), Alashia (33-40) and Hatti (EA 41-44)

the other letters are from vassals in Syria-Palestine

Hazor

bibliography:

Encyclopedia of el-Amarna Contiene resúmenes de las cartas.

Abi-milki, ruler of Tyre EA 147

Lachish Ewer–gift to Elat = Asherah 14/13 c

Lab’ayu, ruler of Shechem justifies his behavior Amarna #365 from
Biridiya
Amarna #287 from Abdu-Heba Amarna #298 from
Yapahu of Gezer warns of insurgency
Amarna #244 from Biridiya of Megiddo complains of Lab’ayu’s attacks; #365 trying to improve his standing
Rib-Addi of Byblos to Akhenaten EA 75, 79, 137 Burnaburiash II Kassite king of Babylon 1359-1333 Letters to Akhenaten EA 7; EA 8EA 9 Abdu-Heba, ruler of Jerusalem; supported by Nubian mercenaries 1352-1336.  Amarna #286 from Abdu-Heba

Nefertiti, wife of Akhenaten

Asshur-uballit I 1365-1330 letters to Amenophis IV EA 15, 16

Amarna #17 from
Tushratta to Amenophis III; Letter #23; Letter #26 to Tiye; Letter to Akhenaten
Tushratta, king of Mitanni married his daughter Tadukhipa to Akhenaten; Tushratta was assassinated


Amarna letter from Tushratta to Akhenaten

http://fontes.lstc.edu/~rklein/Documents/mblb.htm

Suppiluliuma I Hittite king, founder of Hittite empire 1344-1322 married a daughter of Babylonian king; killed by the plague.
Treaty with Mattiwaza ANET 205-206 Destroys the Kingdom of Mitanni ANET 318
Deeds of Suppiluliuma COS 1.74, pp. 185-192 ANET 319
Treaty with Aziru COS 2.17A, pp.  93-95
Letter to Akhenaten EA 41

Rib-Addi of Byblos to Akhenaten EA 75, 79, 137

Abdu-Heba, ruler of Jerusalem; supported by Nubian mercenaries 1352-1336.  Amarna #286 from Abdu-Heba
Amarna #287 from Abdu-Heba

Amarna #298 from
Yapahu of Gezer warns of insurgency

Amarna #244 from Biridiya of Megiddo complains of Lab’ayu’s attacks; #365 trying to improve his standing

Amarna #365 from
Biridiya

Lab’ayu, ruler of Shechem justifies his behavior

http://www.specialtyinterests.net/ea_tablets.html

Samuel Mercer's (1939) Alphabetically Arranged List of the el Amarna Tablets

their authors and recipients


 1. Abdi-Asirta to Pahanate....................................# 62
 2. Abdi-Asirta (or Asratu) to the king.(1).................# 60,61
 3. Abdi-Asirta to the king. ... # 63,64,65 - compare also 66(?)
 4. Abdi-Hiba of Jerusalem to the king...# 285 - 290; perhaps also 291, Source.
 5. Abdi-Milki of Sashimi to the king........................# 203
 6. Abdi-na-...   to the king..................................#229
 7. Abdi-Risa to the king. ....................................#176a
 8. Abdi-Tirsi of Hazor to the king. ..........................# 228
 9. Abimilki of Tyre to the king........................# 146 - 155
10. Addudani to the king. ............................# 292 - 295(?)
11. Addu-nirari to the king. ..................................# 51
12. Addu-Ur.Sag to the king. .............................# 249, 250
13. A[h...] to the king. ..........
............................# 217
14. Aiab to the king. .........
...............................# 256a
15. Akizzi of Qatna to the king. .
.........................# 52 - 55
16. Alasia's king to the king. .
...........................# 33 - 39
17. Alasia's rabis to the rabis of Egypt.
......................# 40
18. Amajase to the king. .
.....................................# 202
19. Amenophis III to Kadasman-Enlil
. .........................# 1, 5
20. Amenophis III to Milkili.
...............................# 31a
21. Amenophis III to Tarhundaraba.
 .............................# 31
22. Amenophis IV to Burraburias.
...............................# 14
23. Ammunira of Beirut to the king.
.....................# 141 - 143
24. Ara[ha]ttu ... of Kumidi to the king.
 .....................# 198
25. Artamanja of Ziribasani to the king.
 ......................# 201
26. Arzawa letters. .............
..........................# 31 - 32
27. Arzawaija of Ruhiza to the king.
 .....................# 191, 192
28. Asuruballit to Amenophis IV.
..........................# 15 - 16
29. Aziri's son to a high Egyptian official
. ..................# 169
30. Aziri's son(?) to the king.
 ...............................# 171
31. Aziri to Dudu. .....
..................................# 158, 164
32. Aziri to Hai. ..........
...........................# 166, 167(?)
33. Aziri to the king. .....
.........# 156, 157, 159 - 161, 165, 168
34. Ba`aluia and Battiilu to the king.
........................# 170
35. Babylonian princess to her lord.
...........................# 12
36. Baduzan[a] to the king. ..
.................................# 239
37. Baiawa to the king. ........
..........................# 125, 126
38. Bajadi to a high official. ..
..............................# 238
39. Bajadi to the king. ........
...............................# 237
40. Ba`lat-Nese to the king. .
............................# 273, 274
41. Ba`lu-Mihir to the king.
............................# 257 - 259
42. Balumiir to the king. ......
...............................# 260
43. Bieri or Hasabu to the king. .
.............................# 174
44. Biridija or Jasdata to the king.
 ..........................# 247
45. Biridija to the king. ......
...................# 242 - 246, 248a
46. Burraburias. ............
...................................# 13
47. Burrabburias to Amenophis III(?).
...........................# 6
48. Burraburias to Amenophis IV. .
..........................# 7 - 11
49. Chief, a, to Rib-Addi. ..
...................................# 96
50. Coele-Syria-letters to the king.
 # 176, 179 - 181, 172(?), 173, 199.
51. Dagantakala to the king.
.............................# 317, 318
52. Dasru to the king. ...........
........................# 261, 262
53. Daughter of ...... to her mistress B[i....].
 ...............# 50
54. Dijate to the king. .......

................................# 193
55. Ebi or [P]abi to a prince.
 ................................# 333
56. En[g]u[t]a to the king. .
..................................# 223
57. Etakkama to the king. ....
.................................# 189
58. Gubbu prince to the king. .
................................# 205
59. Gubla...man of, to a high Egyptian
official or the the king. #101.
60. Gubla ...man of, to the king.
..............................# 94
61. Hatti(?)..king to the king.
.................................#42
62. Hazor, king of, to the king. ..............................# 227
63. Hibija to a chief. ..........
..............................# 178
64. Hiziri to the king. ....
..............................# 336, 337
65. Iabniilu of Lakis to the king.
 ............................# 328
66. Iahtiri to the king. ...
...................................# 296
67. Iahzibadad to the king. ...
...........................# 275, 276
68. Iama to the king. .........
................................# 230
69. Iapah-Addi to Ianhamu. .....
................................# 98
70. Iapah to the king. ........
..................# 297 - 299, 300(?)
71. Iappa[h-Addi] to Sumu-Hadi.
 ................................# 97
72. Ildaja to the king. .....
..................................# 175
73. Ilirabih and the city of Gubla to the king.
 ..........# 139, 140
74. Ipte ..... to the king.
...................................# 207
75. Irqata - city of, to the king.
 ............................# 100
76. Jamiuta to the king. .......
...............................# 177
77. Ja[sd]ata to the king. ....
................................# 248
78. Kadasman-Enlil to Amenophis III
. ........................# 2 - 4
79. Labaja to the king. ......
...........................# 252 - 254
80. Majarzana to the king. ...
............................# 185, 186
81. Mid-Palestinian letters; to a
high Egyptian official. ....# 251;
    to the king. ..........
....................................# 263
82. Milkili to the king.
................................# 267 - 271
83. [M]istu ....... to the king. ..
.............................# 45
84. Mut-Ba`lu to Ianhamu. ...
..................................# 256
85. Mut-Ba`lu to the king. ...
.................................# 255
86. Namiawaza to the king. ......
........................# 194 - 197
87. Naziba - prince to the king. .
.............................# 206
88. North Palestiean letters to
the king. .....# 214, 218, 219, 231;
    perhaps also ............
........................# 208, 236, 240
89. North Syrian (?) king's letters
to the king. ...# 46, 47, 56, 57
90. North Syrian (?) king to
the kings of Canaan. ..............# 30
91. North Syrian (?) king to
 the pharaoh. ......................# 43
92. Nukurtuwa to the king.
 ....................................# 220
93. [P]abi, see Ebi.
94. Pharaoh to Ektakkama?
.....................................# 190
95. Pharaoh to Intaruda. .........
............................# 222a
96. Pharaoh to the prince of Ammia(?).
 ...............# 99, 162, 163
97. Phoenician letter to the king.
.............................# 67
98. Pu-Ba`lu to the king. .....
...........................# 314, 315
99. Pu-Ba`lu to the king and to Sahsihasiha.
 ..................# 316
100. Qanu --- prince to the king.
..............................# 204
101. [Qat]ihutisupa to the king(?).
.............................# 58
102. Rib-Addi to a chief. ...
....................................# 95
103. Rib-Addi to a high Egyptian official
. ..............# 69, 113(?)
104. Rib-Addi to Amanappa.
 .................# 73, 77, 82, 86 - 87, 93
105. Rib-Addi to Haia(?). ......
.................................# 71
106. Rib-Addi to [Ianha]m[u].
 ..................................# 102
107. Rib-Addi to the king. #
68, 70, 72, 74, 76, 78 - 81, 83 - 85, 88 - 92
                             103 - 112, 114 - 129, 129a, 130 - 138.
108. Rusmania of Saruna to the king.
...........................# 241
109. Samu-Adda of Samhuna to the king.
 .........................# 225
110. Sama-Adda to the king. ..
...................................# 49
111. Satija to the king. ...
....................................# 187
112. `Servant', a, to the king. ................................# 200
113. Siptp-Ba`lu to the king. .....................# 330, 331, 332(?)
114. Siptur[i-] to the king. ...................................# 226
115. South Palestinean letters to the king. ....# 277, 307 - 313, 327
116. Subandu to the king. ................................# 301 - 306
117. Subbiluliuma to Huri[a]. ...................................# 41
118. Sum.......... to the king. ................................# 272
119. Sum-Add[a] to the king. ...................................# 224
120. Sutarna of Musihuna to the king. ....................# 182 - 184
121. Suwardata to the king. .........................# 278 -284, 290a
122. Tagi to the king. ............................# 264, 265, 266(?)
123. Tarhundaraba(?) to Amenophis III(?). .......................# 32
124. Tunip's inhabitants to the king. ...........................# 59
125. Tusratta to Amenophis III. ............................# 17 - 24
126. Tusratta to Amenophis IV. .........................# 25, 27 - 29
127. Tusratta to Tiy. ...........................................# 26
128. Widia to the king. ..................................# 320 - 326
129. Wiktazu to the king. .................................# 221, 222
130. Zatatna to the king. .................................# 233, 234
131. Z[i....] to the king. .....................................# 338
132. Zi[k]ar to the king. .......................................# 44
133. [Z]imrid[a] to a high Egyptian official. ..................# 145
134. Zimriddi to the king. .....................................# 144
135. Zisami[mi] to Amenophis IV(?). ............................# 210
136. Zisamimi to the king. .....................................# 209
137. Zitatna to the king. ......................................# 235
138. Zitrijara to the king. ..............................# 211 - 213
139. Zurasar to the king. ......................................# 319
140. Zurata to the king. .......................................# 232
141. .....dih to the king. .....................................# 334
142. [.....h]epa to her mistress. ...............................# 48
143. [......] to the king. .....................................# 188
144. [......] to the king. .....................................# 335
145. [......] to the king. .....................................# 339

Additional Mesopotamian style Amarna letters were found in other locations.

One is Tell el-Hesi where one such letter was found.  For details click Here!

Filed under: General

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30 oct 09

Relieve de Amenofis III estilo Amarna

Estela de Amenhotep/Amenofis III y la reina Tiye encontrada en la casa de Paneshy donde se puede ver a un Amenhotep/Amenofis III envejecido, algo inédito en las representaciones clásicas. Típico ejemplo del realismo del arte amarniense.
La estela se encuentra en el British.

Posible retrato de Amenhotep -Amenofis III, encontrado en el taller del escultor Tutmés.

egiptomaniacos.top-forum.net/el-arte-en-el-an..

Filed under: Arqueologia,ARTÍCULOS,General,H. Egipto,HISTORIA ANTIGUA

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