30 abr 10

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e3/Dream_of_Constantine_Milvius_BnF_MS_Gr510_fol440.jpg

El sueño de Constantino

El origen de las fiestas en honor a la Santa Cruz se pierde en el tiempo. Religiosamente  tienen su origen en el hallazgo por Santa Elena de la cruz donde murió Cristo, pero puede ser que el arraigo popular de la fiesta proviene de ciertas celebraciones de  época romana de celebración de la primavera que coinciden (casi)en los pueblos nórdicos con Beltane y la Noche de Walpurgis.


http://congresosyjornadas.files.wordpress.com/2009/03/cruz-de-mayo.jpg

Cruz de Mayo,España

http://congresosyjornadas.files.wordpress.com/2009/03/cruz-de-mayo.jpg


http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_gZKgFHP8wvM/Sn4A14KQ7vI/AAAAAAAAAks/VPXaIg_8q0M/s400/Invenci%C3%B3n+de+la+Santa+Cruz.jpg

La Invención de la Santa Cruz por santa Helena,madre de Constantino

A este respecto, hay que recordar que generalmentelas fiestas cristianas suelen hacerse coincidir con

las festividades del año agrícola precristiano, con algunos días de retraso.Así, San Juan(24de junio) es la fiesta del Equinocio de verano,(21 de junio), a fin de que el pueblo asimilase ambas fiestas sin darse cuenta,pasando de la pagana a la cristiana sin trauma,un fenómeno de asimilación o superposición denominado “sincretismo”.

[Santa+Elena.jpg]

Santa Helena con la Cruz

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7d/Yorkconstantine.jpg

Estatua de Constantino I en York,donde fue proclamado emperador

(WIKIPEDIA ESPAÑOL)La historia, con mucho de leyenda, narra como en el emperador Constantino I el Grande, en el sexto año de su reinado,

se enfrenta contra los bárbaros a orillas del Danubio, en una batalla cuya victoria se cree imposible a causa de la magnitud del ejército enemigo.(EQUIVOCADO).

Una noche Constantino tiene una visión en el cielo en la que se le apareció brillante la Cruz de Cristo y encima de ella unas palabras, “In hoc signo vincis” (Con esta señal vencerás).

PARA QUE VEAIS POR QUÉ ME QUEJO DE WIKIPEDIA EN ESPAÑOL,TEXTO ANTERIOR,COPIO AQUI EL DE WIKIPEDIA EN INGLES,QUE SI ESTÁ BIEN:

Es decir:Antes de la batalla del puente Milvio, en Roma capital…NO EN GERMANIA, como dice quien escribió en Wikipedia en español…

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7f/Wurzach_St_Verena_Kirchenfahnen_Taufstein.jpg

El Lábaro en una iglesia alemana (Wikipedia)

Pfarrkirche St. Verena, Bad Wurzach, Landkreis Ravensburg

Taufstein unbd Kirchenfahnen

It is commonly stated that on the evening of October 27, 312, with his army preparing for the Battle of the Milvian Bridge, the emperor Constantine I had a vision which led him to fight under the protection of the Christian God. The details of that vision, however, differ between the sources reporting it.

The Battle of the Milvian Bridge took place between the Roman Emperors Constantine I and Maxentius on 28 October 312. Constantine won the battle and started on the path that led him to end the Tetrarchy and become the sole ruler of the Roman Empire. Maxentius drowned in the Tiber during the battle.

TWO VERSIONS IN  THE SOURCES

According to chroniclers such as Eusebius of Caesarea and Lactantius, the battle marked the beginning of Constantine’s conversion to Christianity. Lactantius recounts that Constantine and his soldiers had a vision that God promised victory if they daubed the sign of the cross on their shields. The Arch of Constantine, erected in celebration of the victory, certainly attributes Constantine’s success to divine intervention; however, the monument does not display any overtly Christian symbolism.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/66/Luk_Konstantyna_6DSCF0032.JPG

La batalla del puente Milvio en el Arco de Constantino,Roma(Wikipedia)

Lactantius states( On the Deaths of the Persecutors, chapter 44.5 )[5] that, in the night before the battle, Constantine was commanded in a dream to “delineate the heavenly sign on the shields of his soldiers”. He obeyed and marked the shields with a sign “denoting Christ”. Lactantius describes that sign as a “staurogram”, or a Latin cross with its upper end rounded in a P-like fashion. There is no certain evidence that Constantine ever used that sign, rather than the better known Chi-Rho sign described by Eusebius of Caesarea.

From Eusebius, (      ^ Gerberding and Moran Cruz, 55; cf. Eusebius, Life of Constantine.  ) two accounts of the battle survive. The first, shorter one in the Ecclesiastical History leaves no doubt that God helped Constantine but doesn’t mention any vision. In his later Life of Constantine, Eusebius gives a detailed account of a vision and stresses that he had heard the story from the emperor himself. According to this version, Constantine with his army was marching somewhere (Eusebius doesn’t specify the actual location of the event, but it clearly isn’t in the camp at Rome) when he looked up to the sun and saw a cross of light above it, and with it the Greek words Ἐν Τούτῳ Νίκα. The Latin translation is in hoc signo vinces—”In this sign, conquer”.

File:Consular diptych Probus 406.jpg

Consular diptych of Probus Anicius, consul in 406, depicting emperor Honorius.

Photograph from Ludwig von Sybel, Christliche Antike, vol. 2, Marburg, 1909.

The emperor Honorius holding a variant of the labarum – the Latin phrase on the cloth means “In the name of Christ [rendered by the Greek letters XPI] be ever victorious.”

At first he was unsure of the meaning of the apparition, but the following night he had a dream in which Christ explained to him that he should use the sign against his enemies. Eusebius then continues to describe the labarum, the military standard used by Constantine in his later wars against Licinius, showing the Chi-Rho sign.

Those two accounts can hardly be reconciled with each other, though they have been merged in popular notion into Constantine seeing the Chi-Rho sign on the evening before the battle. Both authors agree that the sign was not readily understandable as denoting Christ, which corresponds with the fact that there is no certain evidence of the use of the letters chi and rho as a Christian sign before Constantine. Its first appearance is on a Constantinian silver coin from c. 317, which proves that Constantine did use the sign at that time, though not very prominently.[7] He made extensive use of the Chi-Rho and the labarum only later in the conflict with Licinius.

The vision has been interpreted in a solar context (e.g. as a solar halo phenomenon), which would have been reshaped to fit with the Christian beliefs of the later Constantine.

Eusebius’ description of the labarum

Constantine’s labarum, from an antique silver medal

“A Description of the Standard of the Cross, which the Romans now call the Labarum.” “Now it was made in the following manner. A long spear, overlaid with gold, formed the figure of the cross by means of a transverse bar laid over it. On the top of the whole was fixed a wreath of gold and precious stones; and within this, the symbol of the Saviour’s name, two letters indicating the name of Christ by means of its initial characters, the letter P being intersected by X in its centre: and these letters the emperor was in the habit of wearing on his helmet at a later period.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/04/Piranesi-Ponte-Milvio.jpg

El puente Milvio,Roma.Grabado de Piranesi.

From the cross-bar of the spear was suspended a cloth, a royal piece, covered with a profuse embroidery of most brilliant precious stones; and which, being also richly interlaced with gold, presented an indescribable degree of beauty to the beholder. This banner was of a square form, and the upright staff, whose lower section was of great length, of the pious emperor and his children on its upper part, beneath the trophy of the cross, and immediately above the embroidered banner.”

“The emperor constantly made use of this sign of salvation as a safeguard against every adverse and hostile power, and commanded that others similar to it should be carried at the head of all his armies.”[8]

http://www.maltagenealogy.com/libro%20d%27Oro/images/500px-Labarum.svg.png

Lábaro de Constantino I

El emperador hizo construir una Cruz y la puso al frente de su ejército, que entonces venció sin dificultad a la multitud enemiga, a la que identifica con una serpiente en esta moneda.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/10/As-Constantine-XR_RIC_vII_019.jpg

As-Constantine-XR RIC vII 019.jpg

Constantine I 307-337 AD. Æ en:Follis (2.97 gm). Struck 337 AD. Constantinople mint.

CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, laureate head right
SPES PVBLICA across field, labarum, with three medallions on drapery and crowned by a christogram, spearing serpent. CONS in exergue.

RIC VII 19.

According to RIC, this famous reverse type represents the defeat of tyranny by the death of Licinius. Yet, the scene also has powerful Christian imagery in that it allegorically portrays the power of Christianity over evil.

De vuelta a la ciudad, averiguado el significado de la Cruz, Constantino se hizo bautizar en la religión cristiana y mandó edificar iglesias. Enseguida envió a su madre, Santa Elena, a Jerusalén en busca de la verdadera Cruz de Cristo. Una vez en la ciudad sagrada, Elena mandó llamar a los más sabios sacerdotes y logró hallar el lugar donde se encontraba la Cruz, pero no estaba sola. En el monte Calvario, donde la tradición situaba la muerte de Cristo, encontró tres maderos ensangrentados ocultos y para descubrir cuál era la verdadera cruz donde falleció Cristo, colocó una a una las cruces sobre personas enfermas, e incluso muertos, que se curaban o resucitaban al tocar la cruz que había sido la de Cristo. A partir de ahí nace la veneración a la Santa Cruz, ya que Santa Elena murió rogando a todos los que creen en Cristo que celebraran la conmemoración del día en que fue encontrada la Cruz.

Países que la celebran

Se celebra en numerosas localidades de España e Hispanoamérica:


A PESAR DE ESCRIBIR EN LATÍN...

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1 Comentario.

  • Rosa Pinilla Montoya dice:

    Pues sí, hay que tener mucho cuidado con Wikipedia, y en general con Internet, hay que rebuscar y comparar para qudasrte con la bueno. Y contrastar con algún libro si es posible.



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