20 mar 10

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La Emperatriz de Persia,Farah Diba,el dia de su coronacion en 1967

The Treasury of Iranian National -Royal- Jewels accommodates the world’s most precious jewelry collection. The treasury has an interesting history, going back centuries. The actual value of the treasury is not known.

COMO SE FORMO EL TESORO IMPERIAL PERSA

I the past 25 centuries, the Iranian kings were compiling jewels and ornaments whenever the country was in peace. The royal courts and the treasures of the Sassanid kings, Khosrow Parviz in particular, are mythical and have a special place in history books.

Regrettably enough, there is not much information available over the quality of jewelry existing in the courts of the Iranian kings. The only valid information concerns the Safavid dynasty. Information comes predominantly from the travelogues of foreign tourists such as Anthony Jenkins, John Baptist Tavernier, Knight Chardin, Shirley Brothers and George Minvaring.

Globo terraqueo irani

The establishment of national and political unity in Iran, and consecutive conquests during the Safavid dynasty, especially those of Shah Abbas, led to the compilation of a priceless treasury of gems and jewels. According to foreign tourists, the Safavid court adopted intense care in the preservation and logging of the royal treasury, which was by then among the world’s most prestigious and biggest collections.

The gems and jewelry kept at the Safavid treasury came from a variety of sources such as: legacy of the previous rulers, gems extracted from the mines of Khorasan and Turkestan, mothers-of-pearl caught in the Persian Gulf, gifts sent in by foreign kings or local rulers, war booties, and items purchased, including those from Tavernier and Chardin. The emissaries of the Safavid kings to India, Ottoman Empire and European countries such as Italy and France also bought and returned with precious jewelry to Isfahan.

With Iran in chaos, the looters, comprising those who had a large part of the treasure or had purchased small fortunes from soldiers at low prices, found the Indian market more suitable for trading their plunders. Thus, a good part of the gains of the Safavid dynasty were transferred to the Teimurid court of India.

Nader Gholi, who was accompanying the Iranian king, Shah Tahmasb II, upon entering Isfahan, could only take back that part of the treasury, which had been passed, to Ashraf Afghan by Mahmoud Afghan. After that, Nader Shah wrote a number of letters to the Indian court to regain possession of the stolen jewelry. As the Indian king defied Nader’s warning, the Afshari king invaded India. After the occupation of Delhi he reinstalled Mohammad Shah as the king of India. Mohammad Shah agreed to transfer consignments of jewelry, guns and weapons to Nader Shah in return for his pledge of truce.

Some part of the treasury, which was recovered from India, was damaged or went missing on the way to Iran. As it was the costume at the time, after returning to Iran, Nadir Shah presented some of the jewelry to the neighboring kingdoms such as Ottoman Emperor Soltan Mahmoud, the Russian Queen Elizabeth… and Bukhara ruler Abolfeiz Khan. He also presented some of the gems and jewels to the holy shrine of the eighth imam of the Shiite Muslims, Imam Reza (peace be upon him), and distributed some among his army.

Shortly after Nader Shah was killed in 1747 CE, Ahmad Khan Ebdali, a commander of Nadir Shah’s army, looted the royal treasury with the help of a number of soldiers he had gathered around him. One of the most precious pieces smuggled out of Iran and never recovered was the Koh-i Noor diamond.

The Qajar King, Agha Mohammad Khan, began to retrieve parts of the Afshari treasury. Agha Mohammad Khan was the first ruler after Nadir Shah who was determined to protect the Iranian treasury. Agha Mohammad Khan’s successor, Fatthali Shah, continued to protect and preserve the royal treasury meticulously mainly because he was very keen on jewelry and ornaments.

Fatthali Shah ordered built the famous Naderi bed, the Takhte Tavoos bed and the Kiani crown. Naser o-Din Shah, another Qajar ruler, also strove to compile and preserve the royal jewelry. He bought 48 pieces of big yellow diamonds, which are being currently kept at the Treasury of National Jewelry. The gemmed Globe is another piece attributed to him, showing his passion for collecting and preserving jewels.

The succeeding Qajarid kings, namely Mozaffar o-Din Shah and Mohammad Ali Shah, ordered their treasury chiefs to log keep a careful record of the royal treasury to prevent theft of the precious collection.

During the reign of Reza Shah Pahlavi and under a law passed by the Iranian parliament on 16th November 1937, a major part of the royal treasury was transferred to the National Bank of Iran to strengthen the bank’s financial power and also to be used as the backing for the monetary system. In January 1960 during the reign of Mohammad Reza Shah, the collection was transferred to the newly established Central Bank.

Following the victory of the Islamic revolution in 1979, the royal collection of the Pahlavi dynasty, plus some other pieces was added to the Central Bank treasury. Since then, it has been named the Treasury of National Iranian Jewels.

Museum of The Treasury of National Iranian Jewels:
Affiliated: Iran’s Central Bank
Address: Ferdowsi Ave., Tehran, Iran
Telephone: +98-20- 311 0101-9
Visiting days and hours*** : Saturday, Sunday and Tuseday from 14:00 to 16:00
*** Children under 12 years of age are not admitted to the Treasury.

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qajarcrown

Kiani Crown

The Kiani Crown was used during the Qajar dynasty. Reza Shah, the founder of the Pahlavi dynasty, had his own crown designed but the Kiani crown was present during his coronation.

The crown itself is made of red velvet which has thousands of gems set onto it. Fathali Shah is often shown in paintings wearing a similar crown – it is not known whether there were a number of crowns in use at the time which looked similar, or whether the artists simply portrayed the same crown in different ways.

La corona  Kiani lleva unas 1800 perlas, cada una de  7 a 9 mm. de diametro. Lleva tambien unas 300 esmeraldas , la mayor de unos  80 cts. Ademas, unos 1800 rubies y  espinelas , la mayor de las cuales tiene  120 cts. El mayor de los diamantes tiene  23 cts.

El total de la altura de la corona es de  32 cm. sin el penacho, y la total es de  19.5 cm.

The Royal Sword

Espada Shahi Sword,Persia

Also known as the Shahi Sword, it was a present to Nasseridin Shah from Amin-o’Sultan, his prime minister. Before his assassination, Amin-o’Sultan served in the court of a number of Kings in that capacity. However, he wasn’t as well appreciated by the common folk. Through his various posts, which included the Minister of the Interior and the Minister of the Treasury and Customs, he managed to accumulate sufficient wealth to afford such presents.

Though the picture is only of the sword’s handle and hilt, the scabbard is entirely encrusted with approximately 3000 jewels of similar quality. According to an inscription which appears on the sword, it was made in 1306 (lunar calendar) by Mirza Ali Nagi. However, the sword was not presented to the King until six years later, around 1894 or 1895 AD.

This sword was worn by Mohammad Reza Shah during his coronation in 1967.

Esta corona fue usada por la reyes de la Dinastia Kianida de  Iran y se conserva en el National Museum – Iran

The illustrated history of earlier kings  named as The Epic of Kings was completed by Iranian poet and philosopher Ferdowsi in 1010 AD i.e. about 1000 years back. Hafeez Jalandhari a prominent Pakistani poet stated in foreword of Shahnama-e-Islam that:

kia Ferdowsi-e-marhoom nain Iran ko Zindah – Khuda tofeeq day to main karoon Islam ko zindah

Hafeez was inspired by Ferdowsi. The Epic of Kings completed by Ferdowsi 1010 A.D has a well documented detail of earlier Kiani Kings. Inspiration by a nation or a country gives life to its people. There are many Kiani families who do not know about their ancestors and glorious past. This effort is being made to enable people to know about their past.

  • The Kiani Crown is safe in any Iranian museum. Reza Shah, the founder of the Pahlavi dynasty, had his own crown designed but the Kiani Crown was present during his coronation. Kiani Crown is made of red velvet which has thousands of gems set onto it.  The total height of the crown is 32 cm. without the aigrette, and the total width is 19.5 cm. Kiani Queen however used different crown.

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  • According to Sultan Raja Zahur Akhtar on cover page of his book Kai-gohar nama, Gakhars are Turkish – Iranian who formed Royal Kiani dynasty of Iran They moved to sub-continent (Potohar) around 1002 A.D. and ruled the area for eight centuries, striving, combating, and ruling of this area of northen Pakistan is an exciting history now. The foreword for this book is written by Chief Justice (R) Mr. Javed Iqbal supreme court of Pakistan. The family moved from central Asia (Tooran)  about 10,000 years BC as Arians speaking people to Turkey. They were Turks at that time. About 8000 years BC, they moved to Turkmenistan. Due to earth quakes in that region they moved to Kurdistan about 6500 years BC. They lived there for several generations and gradually moved to neighboring Iran. In Turkey they were known as Turks, In Kurdistan Kurds. and in Iran Persians. They settled in an area known as Kehan, in Iran.  They formed Royal Archimedean Dynasty about 6000 B.C. The formation of Kiani dynasty starts from word ‘KAI’ in the names of Kings like kai-khusro, Kai-qabad, Kai-gohar and other kings for centuries. Their decedents in Pakistan, India, Kashmir, Tibet, China, Turkey, central Asian states, Kurdistan, Iran, Afghanistan and other parts of the world are called Kiani dynasty. According to Iben-e-Khuldoon a renowned historians, the ruler of Kabul, Kabul Shah was a Kianian.

  • In La Perron’s – History of the Pasrsis – p.27 it is said that a migration of Persians to China, under Feroz, a son of King Yazdezard, took place in the 7th century; it is suggested that this was the occasion when the ancestors of another Kianian dynasty settled in Kashmir and Tibet: an old M.S. pedigree-table produced shows a Sultan Yazdjar some 45 generations back. Frishta’s reference with regard to their rule in Kashmir during Kaid Raj and Kabul and Kandhar p.881 also confirms this. Kaygohar Nama by Dewan Duni Chand in Persian, translated by Raja Mohammad Yaqoob Tariq in Urdu in form of History of Gakhars, p 203 refers to the origin of Kianis (Gakhars) and their rule in Kashmir.  The official letters and documents of all Mughal Kings reveal the status of Gakhars before and during their rule in India. Iranian poet Ferdowsi in year 1010 completed Shahnama, which has detail of the earlier Kiani Kings starting from Sasani era. Chinese writers confirm the period of Feroz (Peroz) in China. History of Gakhars (Tareekh -e-  Gakhran) by Raja Yaqoob Tariq, Kaygohar Nama by Sultan Zahur Akhtar and Persian writing of  Duni Chand as well as the writings of Mughal kings have left valuable historical record regarding Kianis independent rule between Jhelum and Sind now major part of Pakistan.

  • Persia’s conquest by Islamic Arab armies marks the transition into “medieval” Persia. The explosive growth of the Arab Caliphate coincided with the chaos caused by the end of Sassanid rule. The last king Yazdegerd was defeated by Muslim army. in 651. Two daughters of Kiani king Yazdgard   were brought to Madina as captives. All had gathered in the holy mosque of Madina to see what was the decision of the caliph, about them. Ali  suggested Urnmer, to free the girls so that they marry whosoever they wish. One princess Shahr Banu decided to marry Hussain ibn-e-Ali and the other  other chose Imam Hassan ibn-e Ali .  It is interesting to note that one sister of this princess was married to Chinese King.

  • Ali said to Hussain, “Look after this woman very well, because, from her an Imam (Zain-ul-Abidin) will come into existence who will be the best of the God’s creations upon the earth and the father of all the Imams after himself. The marriages were authorized and solemnized by second caliph Omer in presence of  Ali. The princess, who later became mother of Imam Zain-Ul-Abidin was given the highest status in the Islamic society. Although in the 7th century, the  Sassanid king was defeated by Muslim Arabs, however Zoroastrians were awarded the status of People of the Book by the Caliph Omar, some of their practices being contrary to Islam were prohibited, such as sibling marriages. The relation of Muslims, with Kianis start from here.

  • The Arab empire, ruled by the Umayyad Dynasty, was the largest state in history up to that point. It stretched from Spain to the Indus, from the Aral Sea to the southern tip of Arabia. Yet the Umayyads borrowed heavily from Persian and Byzantine administrative systems and moved their capital to Damascus, in the center of their empire. The Umayyads would rule Persia for a hundred years.

  • The Arab conquest dramatically changed life in Persia. Arabic became the new lingua franca and Islam quickly replaced Zoroastrianism; mosques were built, and many Persians intermarried with Arabs. A new language, religion, and culture were added to the Persian culture.

Kianian Persian Empire

The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that ruled the country of Persia (Iran). Persia’s earliest known kingdom was the proto-Elamite Empire, followed by the Medes; but it is the Achaemenid Empire emerged under Cyrus the Great that is usually the earliest to be called “Persian.” Successive states in Iran before 1935 are collectively called the Persian Empire by Western historians.

Sassanid Persia (AD 226-650)

  • The Sassanid (or Sassanian) dynasty was the name given to Kiani Kings of Persia,  who ruled Iran for centuries. (named after Ardashir’s grandfather) was the first native Persian ruling dynasty since the Achaemenids; thus they saw themselves as the successors of Darius and Cyrus. They pursued an aggressive expansionist policy. They recovered much of the eastern lands that the Kushans had taken in the Parthian period. The Sassanids (Kianis) continued to make war against Rome; a Persian army even captured the Emperor Valerian in 260.

  • Sassanid Persia, unlike Parthia, was a highly centralized state. The people were rigidly organized into a caste system: Priests, Soldiers, Scribes, and Commoners. Zoroastrianism was finally made the official state religion, and spread outside Persia proper and out into the provinces. There was sporadic persecution of other religions. The Catholic (Orthodox) Christian church was particularly persecuted, but this was in part due to its ties to the Roman Empire. The Nestorian Christian church was tolerated and sometimes even favored by the Sassanids.

  • The wars and religious control that had fueled Sassanid Persia’s early successes eventually contributed to its decline. The eastern regions were conquered by the White Huns in the late 400s. Adherents of a radical religious sect, the Mazdakites, revolted around the same time. Khosrau I was able to recover his empire and expand into the Christian countries of Antioch and Yemen. However, a final war with Rome utterly destroyed the empire. Between 605 and 629, Sassanids successfully annexed Levant and Egypt and pushed into Anatolia. Their armies even reached Constantinople, but could not defeat the Byzantines there. Emperor Heraclius successfully outflanked Sassanid armies in Asia Minor and handed them a crushing defeat in Northern Mesopotamia, this Persian defeat was mentioned in Qur’an as a victory for believers (The Romans). Sassanids had to give up all their conquered lands and retreat. Heavy taxes and a very long war caused rebellions across the empire.

  • The Arab empire, ruled by the Umayyad Dynasty, was the largest state in history up to that point. It stretched from Spain to the Indus, from the Aral Sea to the southern tip of Arabia. Yet the Umayyads borrowed heavily from Persian and Byzantine administrative systems and moved their capital to Damascus, in the center of their empire. The Umayyad would rule Persia for a hundred years.

  • The Arab conquest dramatically changed life in Persia. Arabic became the new lingua franca and Islam quickly replaced Zoroastrianism; mosques were built, and many Persians intermarried with Arabs. A new language, religion, and culture were added to the Persian cultural milieu. In the modern times the so called civilized allied forces, calling themselves champion of human rights, democracy and civil liberties disgraced and humiliated the prisoners of war under their custody but the Islamic forces of Taliban left everlasting impression over their prisoner, a British journalist who later on her  relase converted to Islam

  • The Sassanid (or Sassanian or Kiani) dynasty (named for Ardashir’s grandfather) was the first native Persian ruling dynasty since the Achaemenids; thus they saw themselves as the successors of Darius and Cyrus. They pursued an aggressive expansionist policy. They recovered much of the eastern lands that the Kushans had taken in the Parthian period. The Sassanids continued to make war against Rome; a Persian army even captured the Emperor Valerian in 260.

  • Sassanid Persia, unlike Parthia, was a highly centralized state. The people were rigidly organized into a caste system: Priests, Soldiers, Scribes, and Commoners. Zoroastrianism was finally made the official state religion, and spread outside Persia proper and out into the provinces. There was sporadic persecution of other religions. The Catholic (Orthodox) Christian church was particularly persecuted, but this was in part due to its ties to the Roman Empire. The Nestorian Christian church was tolerated and sometimes even favored by the Sassanids.

The wars and religious control that had fueled Sassanid Persia’s early successes eventually contributed to its decline. The eastern regions were conquered by the White Huns in the late 400s. Adherents of a radical religious sect, the Mazdakites, revolted around the same time. Khosrau I was able to recover his empire and expand into the Christian countries of Antioch and Yemen. However, a final war with Rome utterly destroyed the empire. Between 605 and 629, Sassanids successfully annexed Levant and Egypt and pushed into Anatolia. Their armies even reached Constantinople, but could not defeat the Byzantines there. Emperor Heraclius successfully outflanked Sassanid armies in Asia Minor and handed them a crushing defeat in Northern Mesopotamia, this persian defeat was mentioned in Qur’an as a victory for believers (The Romans). Sassanids had to give up all their conquered lands and retreat. Heavy taxes and a very long war caused rebellions across the empire. Khosro II (Parviz) was assassinated in 629, this incidence was allegedly told (witted) by Muhammed before the assassination took place even as a punishment from God to Khosro II (Parviz) because of tearing Muhammed’s message which contained a chapter of Qur’an and humiliating Muhammed’s messangers. Then the empire plunged into anarchy after the death of his successor, Kavadh II. After a defeat at Nineveh in 642, civil war broke out and the king was assassinated. The Sassanid shahs no longer had control over the country.

Islam and Persia (650-1219)

Islamic conquest of Iran

  • The Arab empire, ruled by the Umayyad Dynasty, was the largest state in history up to that point. It stretched from Spain to the Indus, from the Aral Sea to the southern tip of Arabia. Yet the Umayyads borrowed heavily from Persian and Byzantine administrative systems and moved their capital to Damascus, in the center of their empire. The Umayyads would rule Persia for a hundred years.

  • The Arab conquest dramatically changed life in Persia. Arabic became the new lingua franca and Islam quickly replaced Zoroastrianism; mosques were built, and many Persians intermarried with Arabs. A new language, religion, and culture were added to the Persian cultural milieu.

  • In 750 the Umayyads were ousted from power by the Abbasid family. By that time, Iranians had come to dominate not only the bureaucracy of the empire, but all branches of the government [1]. The unrivaled dominance of the Persians on all affairs of the administration of the Caliphate led to the spread and blossoming of Persian culture, science, mathematics, and medicine, throughout the Arab world. The caliph Al-Ma’mun, whose mother was an Iranian, moved his capital away from Arab lands into Merv in eastern Persia. It was he who later founded the Baghdad House of Wisdom, based on the Persian Jondishapour.

  • The scientific movement that resulted from this was to have a direct impact on the European Renaissance centuries later: the Iranian Khwarazmi contributed heavily to the mathematical field of algebra, earning himself the title of Father of Algebra. He, along with hundreds of other prominent scholars, carried the torch of the world’s most advanced civilizations for hundreds of years. (See full list here).

  • But political unrest continued. In 819, East-Persia was conquered by the Persian Samanids, the first native rulers after the Arabic conquest. They made Samarqand, Bukhara and Herat their capitals and revived the Persian language and culture. It was approximately during this age, when the poet Firdawsi finished the Shah Nama, an epic poem retelling the history of the Persian kings; Firdawsi completing the poem in 1010.

  • In 913, West-Persia was conquered by the Buwayhid, a native Persian tribal confederation from the shores of the Caspian Sea. They made the Persian city of Shiraz their capital. The Buwayids destroyed Islam’s former territorial unity. Rather than a province of a united Muslim empire, Persia became one nation in an increasingly diverse and cultured Islamic world.

  • The Muslim world was shaken again in 1037 with the invasion of the Seljuk Turks from the northeast. The Seljuks created a very large Middle Eastern empire and continued in the flowering of medieval Islamic culture. The Seljuks built the fabulous Friday Mosque in the city of Isfahan. The most famous Persian writer of all time, Omar Khayyám, wrote his Rubayat of love poetry during Seljuk times.

  • In the early 1200s the Seljuks lost control of Persia to another group of Turks from Khwarezmia, near the Aral Sea. The shahs of the Khwarezmid Empire ruled for only a short while, however, because they had to face the most feared conqueror in history: Genghis Khan.

  • Persia under the Mongols and their successors (1219-1500)
  • In 1218, Genghis Khan sent ambassadors and merchants to the city of Otrar, on the northeastern confines of the Khwarizm shahdom. The governor of Otrar had these envoys executed. Genghis, out of revenge, sacked Otrar in 1219 and continued on to Samarkand and other cities of the northeast.

  • Genghis’ grandson, Hulagu Khan, finished what Genghis had begun when he conquered Persia, Baghdad, and much of the rest of the Middle East in 1255-1258. Persia became the Ilkhanate, a division of the vast Mongol Empire.

  • In 1295, after Ilkhan Ghazan converted to Islam, he renounced all allegiance to the Great Khan. The Ilkhans patronized the arts and learning in the fine tradition of Persian Islam; indeed, they helped to repair much of the damage of the Mongol conquests.

  • In 1335, the last Ilkhan’s death spelled the end of the Ilkhanate. It splintered into a number of small states. This left Persia open to still more conquest at the hands of another conqueror connected with the Mongol Empire: Timur the Lame or Tamerlane. He invaded Persia beginning around 1370 and plundered the country until his death in 1405. Timur was an even bloodier conqueror than Genghis had been. In Isfahan, for instance, he slaughtered 70,000 people so that he could build towers with their skulls. He conquered a wide area and made his own city of Samarkand rich, but he made no effort to forge a lasting empire. Persia was essentially left in ruins.

  • For the next hundred years Persia was not a unified state. It was ruled for a while by descendants of Timur, called the Timurid emirs. Toward the end of the 1400s, Persia was taken over by the Emirate of the White Sheep Turkmen (Ak Koyunlu). But there was little unity and none of the sophistication that had defined Persia during the glory days of Islam.

  • A new Persian empire: the Safavids (1500-1722)The Safavid Dynasty hailed from Azerbaijan, at that time considered a part of the greater Persia region. The Safavid Shah Ismail I overthrew the White Sheep Turkish rulers of Persia to found a new native Persian empire. Ismail expanded Persia to include all of present-day Azerbaijan, Iran, and Iraq, plus much of Afghanistan. Ismail’s expansion was halted by the Ottoman Empire at the Battle of Chaldiran in 1514, and war with the Ottomans became a fact of life in Safavid Persia.

  • Safavid Persia was a violent and chaotic state for the next seventy years, but in 1588 Shah Abbas the Great ascended to the throne and instituted a cultural and political renaissance. He moved his capital to Isfahan, which quickly became one of the most important cultural centers in the Islamic world. He made peace with the Ottomans. He reformed the army, drove the Uzbeks out of Persia and into modern-day Uzbekistan, and captured a Portuguese base on the island of Ormus.

  • The Safavids were followers of Shi’a faith ofIslam, and under them Persia became the largest Shi’ite country in the Muslim world, a position Iran still holds today.

  • Under the Safavids Persia enjoyed its last period as a major imperial power. In the early 1600s, a final border was agreed upon with Ottoman Turkey; it still forms the border between Turkey and Iran today.

  • An 18th century under the leadership of Kiani kings of all Middle Ages, the natural philosophy and mathematics of ancient Greeks were furthered and preserved within the Muslim world. During this period of Kiani kings, Persia became a centre for the manufacture of scientific instruments, retaining its reputation for quality well into the 19th century.

Persia and Europe (1722-1914)

  • In 1722, Safavid Persia collapsed. That year saw the first European invasion of Persia since the time of Alexander: Peter the Great, Czar of Russia, invaded from the northwest as part of a bid to dominate central Asia. To make the situation truly hopeless, Ottoman forces accompanied the Russians, successfully laying siege to Isfahan.

  • The country was able to weather the invasions; neither the Russians nor the Turks gained any territory. However, the Safavids were severely weakened, and that same year (1722), the empire’s Afghani subjects launched a bloody revolt in response to the Safavids’ attempts to convert them from Sunni to Shi’a Islam by force. The last Safavid shah was executed, and the dynasty came to an end.

  • The Persian empire experienced atemporary revival under Nadir Shah in the 1730s and ’40s. Nadir drove out the Russians and confined the Afghans to their present home in Afghanistan. He launched many successful campaigns against Persia’s old enemies, the nomadic khanates of Central Asia; most of them were destroyed or absorbed into Persia. However, his empire declined after his death. His rule was followed by the weak and short-lived Zand dynasty. Persia was left unprepared for the worldwide expansion of European empires in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.

  • Persia found relative stability in the Kiani Qajar dynasty, ruling from 1779 to 1925, but lost hope to compete with the new industrial powers of Europe; Persia found itself sandwiched between the growing Russian Empire in Central Asia and the expanding British Empire in India. Each carved out pieces from Persia that became Bahrain, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenia, Tajikestan, Uzbekistan, and parts of Afghanistan.

  • Although Persia was never directly invaded, it gradually became economically dependent on Europe. The Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907 formalized Russian and British spheres of influence over the north and south of the country, respectively, where Britain and Russia each created a “sphere of influence“, where the colonial power had the final “say” on economic matters.

  • At the same time the young Kiani Shah had granted a concession to William Knox D’Arcy, later the Anglo-Persian Oil Company, to explore and work the newly-discovered oil fields at Masjid-al-Salaman in southwest Persia, which started production in 1914. Winston Churchill, as First Sea Lord to the British Admiralty, oversaw the conversion of the Royal Navy to oil-fired battleships and partially nationalized it prior to the start of war. A small Anglo-Persian force was garrisoned there to protect the field from some hostile tribal factions.

Persia in World War One (1914-1918)

  • Persia was drawn into the periphery of WWI because of its strategic position between Afghanistan and the warring Ottoman, Russian, and British Empires. In 1914 Britain sent a military force to Mesopotamia to deny access to the Persian oilfields from the Ottomans. Germany retaliated on behalf of its ally by spreading a rumor that the Kaiser had converted to Islam, and sent agents through Persia to attack the oil fields and raise a Jihad against British rule in India. Most of those German agents were captured by Persian, British and Russian troops who were sent to patrol the Afghan border, and the rebellion faded away.

  • This was followed by a German attempt to abduct and control the young Shah, with the assistance of his mainly-Swedish bodyguard, which was foiled at the last moment.

  • In 1916 the fighting between Russian and Ottoman forces to the north of the country had spilt down into Persia; Russia gained the advantage until most of her armies collapsed in the wake of the 1917 Russian Revolution. This left the Caucasus unprotected, and the Caucasian and Persian civilians starving after years of war and depravation. In 1918 a small force of 400 British troops under General Dunsterville moved into the Trans-Caucasus from Persia in a bid to encourage local resistance to German and Ottoman armies who were about to invade the Baku oilfields. Although they later withdrew back into Persia, they did succeed in delaying the Turks access to the oil almost until the Armistice. In addition, the expedition’s supplies were used to avert a major famine in the region, and a camp for 30,000 displaced refugees was created near the Persian-Mesopotamian border.

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Persia after World War One (1919-1935)

  • By WW1 Persia was not the world power it had once been; it had become a tool in the political battles of other empires.In 1919 northern Persia was occupied by the British General Edmund Ironside to enforce the Turkish Armistice conditions and assist General Malleson contain Boshevik influences in the north. Britain also took tighter control over the increasingly lucrative oilfields. In 1925, Reza Shah Pahlavi seized power from the Kiani Qajars and established the new Pahlavi dynasty. However, Britain and the Soviet Union remained the influential powers in Persia into the early years of the Cold War.

  • The second-to-last Shah, Reza Pahlavi, asked the world to call the country Iran in 1935, but in 1959 Mohammad Reza Pahlavi announced that both Persia and Iran can be used interchangeably.

Head of King Shapur II of Sasanian dynasty 4th century

Islam and Persia – (650-1219)

Islamic conquest of Iran


Gold dinars of Ardashir- I, showing him first (left) wearing the jewelled Pathian crown of Mithradates II, and second (right) in the distinctive crown he devised for himself. This consists of a simple skull cap tied around the brows with a diadem, the hair gathered in a high silken globe or Keymbos.  The  Sasanians also see British Musem

Sultan Ahmad Shah
King at the age of 11 Years

Ahmad Shah was the last king of the kiani (Qajar) dynasty, reigned for about 16 years. He reigned with regent from 1909 to 1914, when he reached the legal age and crowned as the King of Persia (Despite the fact that he never wore the Kiani crown), therefore coins of this period are categorized into 2 groups: Before & after the coronation.

  • Agha Mohammad Khan  1794 – 1797

  • Fath’Ali Shah                 1797 – 1834

  • Mohammad Shah            1834 – 1848

  • Naser o-Din Shah            1848 – 1896

  • Mozaffar o-Din Shah        1896 – 1907

  • Mohammed Ali Shah 1907 – 1909

  • Ahmed Shah 1909 – 1925

Bank notes of Kiani Kings

Click following to see Kiani Kings bank notes

Notes -1 Notes – 2 Notes – 3 Notes – 4 Notes – 5 Notes – 6 Notes – 7

Translated by Helen Zimmern


Sultan Ahmad Shah, The last shah of the Qajar (Kadjar) of Kiani dynasty, and perhaps the most maligned of all of the dynasty’s shahs by its enemies and detractors, Sultan Sultan Ahmad Shah was born 21 January, 1898 in Tabriz, who succeeded to the throne and the power at the age of  eleven, when his father, Mohammad Ali Shah was forced into exile after his defeat against the revolutionary forces in 1909. Sultan Ahmad Shah was a kind and learned man, who tried scrupulously to rule as a constitutional monarch over an Iran that had entered during his reign into waters, few if any could rescue her from during and after the world war one and its after effects later. He appointed Dr. Musaddaq, who was highly educated person as a minister and tried to make very efficient government. The occupation of Iran during World War I (1914 -18) by Russian, British, and Ottoman troops was a blow from which Sultan Ahmad Shah never effectively recovered, however he successfully got the occupation forces of Russia, British and Turkey out of Iran.




Ferdowsi

PAHALVI  DYNASTY

Islamic Revolution
Ayatollah Khomeini – 1
Ayatollah Khomeini – 2
Ayatollah Khomeini – 3
Game of Kings

The Pahlavi Crown
This crown was used by Reza Shah, the founder of the Pahlavi dynasty, in his coronation on 25 April 1926. His son, Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, the last Shah of Iran, also used the crown in his coronation on 26 Oct. 1967.

The crown was designed and built by a group of Iranian jewellers, under the supervision of Haj Serajeddin, the famous jeweller who had been in the employ of the Amir of Bokhara and had later emigrated from the Soviet Union to Iran. The stones were selected from loose stones in the treasury.

Corona Palhavi

The crown made of red velvet, gold, and silver. It has a total height of 29.8 cm. and has a width of 19.8 cm. It weighs 2,080 grams. The are 3,380 diamonds employed on the crown, totalling 1,144 cts. The largest is a brilliant-cut yellow diamond of 60 cts. which is located in the center of the front jewel sunburst. There are also 369 perfectly-matching natural pearls in three rows on the crown. Of the 5 emeralds, totalling 200 cts., the largest is approximately 100 cts. The largest sapphire is 20 cts.

The design of the crown incorporates a motif of the Sassanid dynasty, which ruled over the Persian Empire from the 3rd through the 7th centuries AD.

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Farah’s favorite Tiara
This tiara was also designed by Harry Winston, the New York jeweller, for the occasion of the marriage of Empress Farah and Reza Shah Pahlevi in 1958. It was considered to be Farah’s favorite tiara, since she was often seen wearing it on formal occasions, such as her on visit to the United States and Canada in 1965.

Tiara  favorita de Farah Diba

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The Empress’s Crown
Once Muhammad Reza Shah placed the Pahlavi crown on his own head during his coronation ceremony in 1967, he placed this crown on the head of his wife, the Empress Farah. Until that date, the wives of Persian monarchs were not crowned, and so it became necessary to design a new crown for the occasion. That honor was bestowed on the French jewellers, Van Cleef & Arpel.

Corona de la Emperatriz Farah Diba

The Noor-ol-Ain Tiara
The centerpiece of this tiara is the Noor-ol-Ain diamond, which is one of the largest pink diamonds in the world. The diamond may have been brought from India, along with the Sea of Light diamond. The diamond is set in platinum, and is surrounded by pink, clear and yellow diamonds. The Noor-ol-Ain is a brilliant cut, almost tear shaped diamond of approximately 60 cts.; the other diamonds range from 14 to 19 cts. each.

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The tiara was designed by Harry Winston for the occasion of the Empress Farah’s wedding to the the last Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, in 1958.

Museum of The Treasury of National Iranian Jewels:
Affiliated: Iran’s Central Bank
Address: Ferdowsi Ave., Tehran, Iran
Telephone: +98-20- 311 0101-9
Visiting days and hours*** : Saturday, Sunday and Tuseday from 14:00 to 16:00
*** Children under 12 years of age are not admitted to the Treasury.

Filed under: ACTUALIDAD,Arqueologia,Arte Antiguo,ARTÍCULOS,Curiosidades,General,Hombres de la Historia,Mujeres de la Historia,OPINIONES,PERSONAJES

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