25 oct 09

Los  sumerios inventaron la forma de escribir denominada “cuneiforme”.

Al principio hacían representaciones de animales y objetos

muy simples para representar las ideas que  querían expresar


Usaban una tablilla de arcilla húmeda y una caña de junco para reproducir los dibujos de los objetos que nombraban

(ideogramas y pictogramas)y escribían en líneas horizontales

Pocos siglos después  escribieron en líneas horizontales


La punta de la caña que usaban para escribir los signos era triangular, de cuña

Stylus


Evolución de los signos

http://garshin.ru/linguistics/scripts/cuneiform/_images/sumer/sumerian_signs.gif

You can read more about the previous example at www.metmuseum.org.
Administrative tablet with cylinder seal impression of a male figure, hunting dogs, and boars, Jamdat Nasr, Uruk III; 3100–2900 B.C.
Mesopotamia, southern region
Clay; 2 3/16 x 2 3/8 x 1 5/8 in. (5.5 x 6 x 4.2 cm)
Purchase, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Gift, 1988 (1988.433.1)

In about 3300 B.C. writing was invented in Mesopotamia, perhaps in the city of Uruk, where the earliest inscribed clay tablets have been found in abundance. This was not an isolated development but occurred during a period of profound transformations in politics, economy, and representational art. During the Uruk period of the fourth millennium B.C., the first Mesopotamian cities were settled, the first kings were crowned, and a range of goods—from ceramic vessels to textiles—were mass-produced in state workshops. Early writing was used primarily as a means of recording and storing economic information, but from the beginnings a significant component of the written tradition consisted of lists of words and names that scribes needed to know in order to keep their accounts. Signs were drawn with a reed stylus on pillow-shaped tablets, most of which were only a few inches wide. The stylus left small marks in the clay which we call cuneiform, or wedge-shaped, writing.

This tablet most likely documents grain distributed by a large temple, although the absence of verbs in early texts make them difficult to interpret with certainty. The seal impression depicts a male figure guiding two dogs on a leash and hunting or herding boars in a marsh environment.

Para  la trasliteración de los signos puede leerse

http://www-etcsl.orient.ox.ac.uk/edition2/pdf/transliterationprinciples.pdf

www.schoyencollection.com/lexical.html

19. Dictionaries & Lexical Texts

MS 3173
LEXICAL LIST OF TREES, WOODEN OBJECTS, GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES AND TYPES OF SPADES


MS 3173

MS in Sumerian on clay, Sumer, Uruk III, 3100-3000 BC, lower 1/2 of a tablet, 10,5×24,5×4,5 cm (originally ca. 25×24,5×4,5 cm), 9 columns, 120 lines in pictographic script.

Commentary: This is by far the largest pictographic tablet known. It represents a new lexical tradition different from the 13 Uruk lists of titles (MS 2429/4), animals, fish, plants, jars, cities, etc.

The present list would have had no less than 230 geographical names compared to the Uruk city list of 88 entries. The later Tell Abu Salabikh (ca. 2500 BC) and Ebla (ca. 2400 BC) lists had 289 entries, but entirely different from the present one.

http://www.schoyencollection.com/lexical_files/ms3173.jpg

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MS 2462
LEXICAL LIST OF BIRDS, ANIMALS AND OBJECTS, PRECEDED BY NUMBERS, “THE TRIBUTE”

MS 2462

MS in Sumerian on clay, Sumer, ca. 2500 BC, 1 tablet, 12,6×13,4×2,5 cm, 6 columns, 96 compartments in a fine professional cuneiform script.

Binding: Barking, Essex, 1998, blue quarter morocco gilt folding case by Aquarius.

Commentary: “The Tribute” dates to ca. 2900 BC; the present tablet is an Early Dynastic version of the text, the only one so far attested.

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MS 3178

http://www.schoyencollection.com/lexical_files/ms3178.jpg

LEXICAL SERIES “EA A NÂQU”, TABLET 7, GIVING FIRST THE SUMERIAN PRONUNCIATION OF A SIGN, THEN THE SUMERIAN SIGN ITSELF, AND THEN THE BABYLONIAN TRANSLATION OF IT
MS in Neo Sumerian and Babylonian on clay, Babylonia, 1400-1100 BC, 1 tablet, 24,3×16,5×4,0 cm, 2+2 columns, 213 lines of originally ca. 260 lines, in cuneiform script.

Context: Another tablet from “ea A nâqu” is MS 1811. The lexical series “ea A nâqu” consists of 8 tablets. From tablet 7 only 98 lines have so far been known of a total of ca. 260 lines. With the present tablet nearly all of the 260 lines can be restored.

Commentary: This series and the series “Aa A nâqu” of 42 tablets are the basic tool and the foundation for reading and understanding the Sumerian and Babylonian languages. The present tablet fills a major gap in that knowledge. This is one of a very few witnesses from the Middle Babylonian period.

See also MS 189, School Text or Dictionary, explaining verbs of motion. Egypt, 1st c. BC

See also MS 1816 Isidorus Hispalensis: Etymologiarum sive originum, lib. XI, ii:33-37. Germany, ca. 800

Filed under: Arqueologia,ARTÍCULOS,General,H. Próximo Oriente,HISTORIA ANTIGUA

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