20 oct 09

El Cilindro de Ciro es una pieza cilíndrica de arcilla que contiene una declaración en cuneiforme acadio babilonio del rey persa Ciro el Grande (559-529 a. C.). En ella, el nuevo rey legitima su conquista y toma medidas políticas para ganarse el favor de sus nuevos súbditos(Wikipedia).

Hay quienes opinan que el Cilindro de Ciro, dado a conocer en el año 539 a.C. por Ciro El Grande del imperio aqueménida de Persia (antiguo Irán) tras conquistar Babilonia, es el primer documento de derechos humanos.

www.pavasta.com/…/jewelofdurimgurenlil.html

As already mentioned, in 1880s, the knowledge of the Akkadian language was less than two decades old and the transliteration and translation of Cyrus Cylinder, first published in 1880, has gone through a number of revisions as the inflective language of the ancient Assyrians and Babylonians has become better known to scholars and philologists.

The English translation of Cyrus Cylinder in 2006 by Piotr Michalowski, based on the translation and transliteration of the original Akkadian text by the Assyriologist Hanspeter Schaudig in Die Inschriften Nabonids von Babylon und Kyros’ des Großen, is provided on the website of the British Museum, along with a short physical description and the current view of the museum about the historical value of the inscription.

Here are the translations of a few sample lines by various scholars, pointing out to variations in available translations. The transliteration is from the original Akkadian text by the Hanspeter Schaudig:

Lines
Transliteration of Akkadian
H. Schaudig 2001
1-8
[î-nu ...]… -ni-šu

[... ki-i]b-ra-a-tî … GAL ma-tu-û iš-šak-na a-na e-nu-tu ma-ti-šû … û? …-ši-li û-ša-âš-ki-na se-ru-šu-un ta-am-ši-li Ê-SAG-ÎL i-te-[pu-uš-ma ... t]î a-na ÛRIki û si-it-ta-a-tî ma-ha-za pa-ra-as la si-ma-a-ti-šu-nu ta-[ak-li-im la-me-si ... la] pa-lih u-mi-šâ-am-ma id-de-nê-eb-bu-ub û ana ma-ag-ri-tî sat-tuk-ku û-šab-ti-li û-l[a-ap-pi-it pêl-lu-de-e ... iš]-tak-ka-an qê-reb ma-ha-zi pa-la-ha dAMAR.UTU LUGAL DINGIRmeš i[g-m]ur kar-šu-uš-šu le-mu-ut-ti URU-šu [i-t]e-nê-ep-pu-uš u-mi-ša-am-ma … [... ÛG]meš-šû i-na ab-ša-a-ni la ta-ap-šu-ûh-tî û-hal-li-iq kul-lat-si-in
20-22
a-na-ku mKu-ra-âš LUGAL kiš-šat LUGAL GAL LUGAL dan-nu LUGAL TIN.TIRki LUGAL KUR šu-me-ri û ak-ka-di-i LUGAL kib-ra-a-ti er-bê-et-tî DUMU mKa-am-bu-zi-ia LUGAL GAL LUGAL URU an-ša-an DUMU DUMU mKu-ra-áš LUGAL GAL LUGA[L U]RU an-ša-an ŠÂ.BAL.BAL mši-iš-pi-iš LUGAL GAL LUGAL URU an-ša-an

NUMUN da-ru-û ša LUGAL-û-tu ša dEN u dNÀ ir-a-mu pa-la-a-šu a-na tu-ub ŠÂ-bi-šû-nu ih-ši-ha L[UGA]L-ut-su e-nu-ma a-n[a q]ê-reb TIN.TIRki e-ru-bu sa-li-mi-iš
32
DINGIRmeš a-ši-ib ŠÂ-bi-šû-nu a-na âš-ri-šu-nu û-tir-ma û-šar-ma-a šu-bat da-rî-a-ta kul-lat ÛGmeš-šû-nu û-pa-ah-hi-ra-am-ma û-te-er da-âd-mi-šû-un
H. C. Rawlinson
1909
(one line destroyed) [r]ims (of the world)… a weakling has been installed as the enû of his country;
[the correct images of the gods he removed from their thrones, imi]tations he ordered to place upon them.
A replica of the temple Esagila he has… for Ur and the other sacred cities inappropriate rituals… daily he did blabber [incorrect prayers]. He (furthermore) interrupted in a fiendish way the regular offerings, he did… he established within the sacred cities.
The worship of Marduk, the king of the gods, he [chang]ed into abomination, daily he used to do evil against his (i.e. Marduk’s) city… He [tormented] its [inhabitant]s with corvée-work (lit.: a yoke) without relief, he ruined them all.

I am Cyrus, king of the world, great king, legitimate king, king of Babylon, king of Sumer and Akkad, king of the four rims (of the earth), son of Cambyses (Ka-am-nu-zi-ia), great king, king of Anshan, grandson of Teispes (Ši-iš-pi-iš), great king, king of Anshan, of a family (which) always (exercised) kingship; whose rule Bel and Nebo love, whom they want as king to please their hearts.
I returned to these (sacred) cities on the other side of the Tigris, the sanctuaries of which have been ruins for a long time, the images which (used) to live therein and established for them permanent sanctuaries. I (also) gathered all their (former) inhabitants and returned (to them) their inhabitation.


R. W. Rogers
1926
… his troops [four] quarters of the world a weakling was established as ruler over the land. and … a similar one he appointed over them, like Essagila he made…  to Ur and the rest of the cities, a command dishonoring them… he planned daily and in enmity, he caused the daily offerings to cease; he appointed… he established within the city. The worship of Marduk, king of the gods… He showed hostility toward his city daily… his people he brought all of them to ruin through servitude without rest.
I am Cyrus, king of the world, the great king, the powerful king, king of Babylon, king of Sumer and Akkad, king of the four quarters of the world, son of Cambyses, the great king, king of the city of Anshan, grandson of Cyrus, the great king, king of the city of Anshan; great-grandson of Teïspes, the great king, king of the city of Anshan;

eternal seed of royalty whose rule Bel and Nabu love, whose government they rejoice in their heart. When I made my triumphal entrance into Babylon,
The gods, who dwelt in them, I brought back to their places, and caused them to dwell in a habitation for all time. All the inhabitants I collected and restored them to their dwelling places.
P. Michalowski
2006
[when...] his… [...] the regions…, an insignificant (candidate) was installed as high priestess (of the Moon) in his land, and [...] he imposed upon them.
He made a replica of the Esaggil, [... established] improper rites for Ur and the remaining cult centres
as well as [unclean offer]ings; daily he continuously uttered unfaithful (prayers); furthermore he maliciously suspended the regular offerings and upset the rites. He plotted to end the worship of Marduk and continuously perpetuated evil against his city. Daily [he... ] brought all his [people] to ruin by (imposing) toils without rest.
I am Cyrus, king of the world, great king, mighty king, king of Babylon, king of the lands of Sumer and Akkad, king of the four quarters of the universe, son of Cambyses, great king, king of Anshan, descendant of Teispes, great king, king of Anshan, from an ancient royal lineage, whose reign is beloved by (the gods) Marduk and Nabu, whose kingship they desired to make them glad.
I returned to these sanctuaries on the other side of the Tigris, sanctuaries founded in ancient times, the images that had been in them there and I made their dwellings permanent. I also gathered all their people and returned to them their habitations.

En las Naciones Unidas lo tradujeron a 6 idiomas por considerarlo predecesor de la Declaración Universal de los Derechos Humanos.

Archivo:Cyrus cilinder.jpg

Fue descubierto en 1879 por el arqueólogo asirio-británico Hormuz Rassam durante la excavación del templo de Marduk en Babilonia. Consiste en dos fragmentos, llamados “A” y “B”. El primero permaneció en el Museo Británico desde su descubrimiento, mientras que el segundo fue alojado en la Universidad de Yale hasta su traslado al Museo Británico, donde se encuentra actualmente.

El 12 de octubre de 539 a. C. (calendario juliano, 7 en el calendario gregoriano, 15 de Tashritu en el calendario babilonio) el ejército persa entró en Babilonia sin resistencia. El 29 de octubre, el propio Ciro llegó a la ciudad, asumiendo los títulos de “rey de Babilonia, rey de Sumer y Acad, rey de los cuatro extremos del mundo.”

A pesar de contener secciones en las que Ciro habla en primera persona, la redacción del cilindro le fue encomendada a sacerdotes babilonios, quienes utilizaron modelos babilonios y asirios. El cilindro fue depositado en los cimientos de las murallas de Babilonia, una práctica habitual en la antigua Mesopotamia, para conmemorar las reparaciones hechas por Ciro.[1] Entre otros textos favorables a Ciro y escritos desde el punto de vista de la clase sacerdotal de Babilonia, se halla el “Relato en verso sobre Nabonido” [3].

Descripción y contenido

El fragmento “A” (BM 90920) mide alrededor 23 x 8 cm y comprende 35 líneas (1-35), mientras que el fragmento “B” mide unos 8,6 x 5,6 cm y comprende 9 líneas (36-45).[2] Su contenido se pude resumir así:

  1. Líneas 1-19: Se describen los actos “criminales” de Nabonido, el último rey de Babilonia, así como la búsqueda de un nuevo rey por parte del dios Marduk, y la consiguiente elección de Ciro.
  2. 20-22: Genealogía (hasta su bisabuelo Teispes) y títulos de Ciro.
  3. 22-34: El propio Ciro cuenta como garantizó la paz, reestableció los cultos y permitió regresar a sus tierras a los pueblos deportados en Babilonia.
  4. 34-35: Oración de Ciro al dios Marduk, pidiendo por él mismo y por su hijo Cambises.
  5. 36-45: Ciro describe la reconstrucción de las murallas de Babilonia y el hallazgo de una inscripción de Assurbanipal.[3]

El Cilindro de Ciro y los derechos humanos

Personalidades como Mohammad Reza Pahlevi (el último Sah de Irán) o la Premio Nobel de la Paz iraní Shirin Ebadi han destacado el valor humanístico del Cilindro de Ciro; se lo ha llegado incluso a llamar “Primera Declaración de los Derechos Humanos”.[4] En su discurso de aceptación del premio Nobel (2003), Shirin Ebadi afirmó que el cilindro “debería ser estudiado en la historia de los derechos humanos“.

De todos modos, numerosos historiadores[5] han destacado que declaraciones de este tipo no eran extrañas en las tradiciones mesopotámicas, y que, si bien acaso inusualmente generoso, el Cilindro de Ciro de ninguna manera puede ser relacionado con los derechos humanos.

En los últimos años ha circulado por internet una traducción fraudulenta al inglés del cilindro. Ésta puede ser reconocida por la mención de Ahura Mazda, ausente en el original, y por frases hiperbólicas como “No impondré mi monarquía sobre ninguna nación. Cada uno es libre de aceptarla, y si alguno de ellos la rechaza, nunca utilizaré la guerra para imponerme.”.[6]

OPINIONES EN CONTRA

A. Kuhrt “The Cyrus Cylinder and Achaemenid imperial policy” en Journal of Studies of the Old Testament 25 pp. 83-97.,

B. van der Spek, “Did Cyrus the Great introduce a new policy towards subdued nations? Cyrus in Assyrian perspective” en Persica 10 pp. 273-285;

seguidos por M. Dandamaev A Political History of the Achaemenid Empire, pp. 52-53, y J. Lendering, “The Cyrus Cylinder” en Livius.orgiciones y traducciones

La última edición del texto acadio es:

  • Hanspeter Schaudig, Die Inschriften Nabonids von Babylon und Kyros’ des Großen, samt den in ihrem Umfeld entstandenen Tendenzschriften. Textausgabe und Grammatik. (2001 Münster, Ugarit-Verlag) (en línea)

Traducciones:

  • Rogers, Robert William: Cuneiform Parallels to the Old Testament (1912), New York, Eaton & Mains. (Online: solo el fragmento A).
  • Pritchard, James B. (ed.): Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament (ANET) (1950, 1955, 1969). Traducción de A. L. Oppenheim. (fragmentos A y B).
  • Brosius, Maria (ed.): The Persian Empire from Cyrus II to Artaxerxes I (2000, London Association of Classical Teachers (LACT) 16, London.

Notas

  1. Muhammad Dandamaev, “The Cyrus Cylinder“, in E. Yarshater (ed.) Encyclopedia Iranica vol. VI, 1993, p. 521
  2. The Cyrus Cylinder” en Livius.org
  3. Basado en M. Dandamaev, op. cit. p. 521; y J. Wisehöfer, Ancient Persia from 550 BC to 650 AD, 2006 [1996], pp. 44-45.
  4. En inglés, “The Firsts Charter of Human Rights”. iranchamber.com, The Cyrus Charter: online
  5. A. Kuhrt “The Cyrus Cylinder and Achaemenid imperial policy” en Journal of Studies of the Old Testament 25 pp. 83-97., B. van der Spek, “Did Cyrus the Great introduce a new policy towards subdued nations? Cyrus in Assyrian perspective” en Persica 10 pp. 273-285; seguidos por M. Dandamaev A Political History of the Achaemenid Empire, pp. 52-53, y J. Lendering, “The Cyrus Cylinder” en Livius.org
  6. Al menos en enero de 2007, el fraude puede hallarse en faithfreedom.org [1] e iranchamber.com [2]; para referencias, véase “The Cyrus Cylinder” en Livius.org. La cita es una traducción porpia un pasaje presentado en Livius.org: “From now on, while Ahuramazda lets me rule, I will impose my monarchy on no nation. Each is free to accept it, and if any one of them rejects it, I shall never resolve on war to reign.”.

http://www.iranica.com/newsite/index.isc?Article=http://www.iranica.com/newsite/articles/v6f5/v6f5a026.html

The Cyrus Cylinder

The Cyrus cylinder (British Museum, no. 90920; Walker, p. 158; Budge, pl. XL; Rawlinson, pl. 35) is a fragmentary clay cylinder with an Akkadian inscription of thirty-five lines discovered in a foundation deposit by A. H. Rassam during his excavations at the site of the Marduk temple in Babylon in 1879 (see Walker, p. 158, citing a letter from Rassam to the British Museum dated 20 November 1879). A second fragment, containing lines 36-45, was identified in the Babylonian collection at Yale University (Nies and Keiser, no. 32) by P.-R. Berger. The total inscription, though incomplete at the end, consists of forty-five lines, the first three almost entirely broken away.

The text contains an account of Cyrus’ conquest of Babylon in 539 b.c.e., beginning with a narrative by the Babylonian god Marduk of the crimes of Nabonidus, the last Chaldean king (lines 4-8). Then follows an account of Marduk’s search for a righteous king, his appointment of Cyrus to rule all the world, and his causing Babylon to fall without a battle (lines 9-19). Cyrus continues in the first person, giving his titles and genealogy (lines 20-22) and declaring that he has guaranteed the peace of the country (lines 22-26), for which he and his son Cambyses have received the blessing of Marduk (lines 26-30). He describes his restoration of the cult, which had been neglected dur­ing the reign of Nabonidus, and his permission to the exiled peoples to return to their homeland (lines 30­-36). Finally, the king records his restoration of the defenses of Babylon (lines 36-43) and reports that in the course of the work he saw an inscription of Aššurbanipal (lines 43-45; cf. Kuhrt, pp. 85-86).

The text was actually composed by priests of Marduk, in an archaizing form inspired by Neo-Assyrian mod­els, particularly inscriptions of Assurbanipal (668-27 b.c.e.) drafted in Babylon (Harmatta). The cylinder thus contains a typical Mesopotamian building in­scription placed as a foundation deposit in the walls of Babylon to commemorate Cyrus’ restorations there (Walker, p. 159).

Bibliography : P.-A. Beaulieu, “Agade in the Late Babylonian Period,” Nouvelles Assyriologiques Brèves et Utilitaires 3, 1989, pp. 44-46. P.-R. Berger, “Der Kyrus-Zylinder mit dem Zusatzfragment BIN II Nr. 32 und die akkadischen Personennamen im Danielbuch,” ZA 64, 1975, pp. 192-234. E. A. W. Budge, British Museum. A Guide to the Babylonian and Assyrian Antiquities, 3rd ed., London, 1922. W. Eilers, “Der Keilschrifttext des Kyros-Zylinders” in W. Eilers, ed., Festgabe deutscher Iranisten zur 2500 Jahrfeier Irans, Stuttgart, 1971, pp. 156-66. O. E. Hagen, “Keilschrifturkunden zur Geschichte des Königs Cyrus,” Beiträge zur Assyriologie 2, 1894, pp. 208-14. J. Harmatta, “Les modèles littéraires de l’édit babylonien de Cyrus,” in Commémoration Cyrus. Hommage universel I, Acta Iranica 1, Tehran and Liège, 1974, pp. 29-44 (= “The Literary Patterns of the Babylonian Edict of Cyrus,” AAASH 19, 1971, pp. 217-31). A. Kuhrt, “The Cyrus Cylinder and Achaemenid Imperial Policy,” Journal for the Study of the Old Testament 25, 1983, pp. 83-97. J. B. Nies and C. E. Keiser, Historical, Religious and Eco­nomic Texts and Antiquities, Babylonian Inscriptions in the Collection of J. B. Nies 2, New Haven, Conn., 1932, no. 32. A. L. Oppenheim, “Babylonian and Assyrian Historical Texts,” in J. B. Pritchard, ed., Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament, Princeton, 1969, pp. 315-16 (translation of the cylinder text). Idem, “The Babylonian Evi­dence of Achaemenian Rule in Mesopotamia,” in Camb. Hist. Iran II, pp. 545-51. H. C. Rawlinson, The Cuneiform Inscriptions of Western Asia V. A Selection of Miscellaneous Inscriptions of Assyria and Babylonia, London, 1884; repr. London, 1909. C. B. F. Walker, “A Recently Identified Fragment of the Cyrus Cylinder,” Iran 10, 1972, pp. 158-59. F. H. Weissbach, Die Keilinschriften der Achämeniden, Vorderasiatische Bibliothek 3, Leipzig, 1911; repr. Leipzig, 1968, pp. 2-8.

The Cyrus Cylinder, discovered in 1879 and now in the British Museum, is one of the most famous cuneiform texts, because it was once believed that it confirmed what the Bible says (Isaiah 44.23-45.8; Ezra 1.1-6, 6.1-5; 2 Chronicles 36.22-23): that in 539 BCE, the Persian conqueror Cyrus the Great had allowed the Jews to return from their Babylonian Exile.Although this information can in fact not be found in the text (only countries east of the Tigris are mentioned), the Cyrus Cylinder remains an interesting document, because it shows that the common elements of Babylonian royal propaganda were also used by the Persian conqueror: for example the restoration of the temples, good care for the gods, and a lengthy titulary (cf. the Nabonidus Cylinder from Sippar for a parallel). So, Cyrus presented himself to the conquered nation as a normal ruler. There is no evidence that Cyrus inaugurated a new policy of tolerance.

The document is also interesting because it confirms information from the Nabonidus Chronicle: that, after the battle of Opis, the capture of Babylon itself was peaceful. Sources that indicate that Nabonidus, the last king of Babylonia, was impopular and believed to be mad, such as the Verse Account, are also corroborated by the Cyrus Cylinder.

Modern propaganda

The cylinder played an important role in the imperial propaganda of Shah Mohammad Reza Palavi, who in 1971 used it as symbol of the celebration of what he called the 2,500th anniversary of the Persian monarchy. A copy was given to the United Nations (text). The Shah tried to prove that the secular Iran with religious freedom that he wanted to promote had existed before, and in this context, the Cyrus Cylinder has been called the “world’s human rights charter”. This interpretation ignores the stereotypical nature of the document.However, the idea that the Cyrus Cylinder plays a role in the history of human rights, has turned out to be quite persistent, and because the text itself does not enable the interpretation, a fake translation has been made that can still be found on many places on the internet and was, for instance, quoted by Shirin Ebadi when she accepted the Nobel Peace Prize in 2003. The fake translation can be recognized because the name of the supreme god, Marduk, is replaced by Ahuramazda, and because it contains lines like

I announce that I will respect the traditions, customs and religions of the nations of my empire and never let any of my governors and subordinates look down on or insult them as long as I shall live. From now on, while Ahuramazda lets me rule, I will impose my monarchy on no nation. Each is free to accept it, and if any one of them rejects it, I shall never resolve on war to reign.

I do not know the author of the falsification, but because the fake text is usually published after the text known as fragment-A, I suspect that it was made before fragment-B was discovered. I do not know what is more disturbing: that someone has made a falsification to prove the Shah’s propaganda, or that no university has put online the correct text to contradict this unpleasant fraud.The transcript of the text offered on the next page has been adapted from the edition by Hanspeter Schaudig (below); the translation is based on Mordechai Cogan’s, published in W.H. Hallo and K.L. Younger, The Context of Scripture. Vol. II: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World (2003, Leiden and Boston), but has been adapted to Schaudig’s edition with the help of Bert van der Spek.

The Shah's stamp of the Cyrus Cylinder.

(Muhammad A. Dandamayev)

Description of the text

Fragment A:
The clay cylinder (BM 90920) is about 23 cm wide and 8 cm in diameter.

It is inscribed on all sides and contains lines 1-35.Fragment B:
There is a small fragment (8,6 cm wide, 5,6 cm high), containing lines 36-45,

that can be joined to the main part. It used to be in the collection of the Yale University (NBC 2504)

but is, together with main fragment, now in the British Museum.

Editions

  • H.C. Rawlinson, Th.G. Pinches, A Selection from the Miscellaneous Inscriptions
  • of Assyria and Babylonia (1884, 1909 London), #35
  • P.-R. Berger, “Der Kyros-Zylinder mit dem Susatzfragment BIN II Nr.32
  • und die akkidischen Personennamen im Danielbuch” in: Zeitschrift für Assyriologie 65 (1975) 192-234
  • Hanspeter Schaudig, Die Inschriften Nabonids von Babylon und Kyros’ des Großen (2001 Münster)
Thanks to Irving Finkel, Michael Kozuh, Matthijs Risselada,
Hanspeter Schaudig, Bert van der Spek, Mr. Stolper

http://www.livius.org/ct-cz/cyrus_I/cyrus_cylinder.html

  • The transcription offered here has been adapted from the edition by Hanspeter Schaudig, Die Inschriften Nabonids von Babylon und Kyros’ des Großen (2001 Münster). Because this web edition was made to counter propaganda, Mr. Schaudig’s footnotes could be ignored; some aspects have been simplified; and Personenkeile have been rendered with m instead of i (cf. the web versions of the Babylonian Chronicles). Check the original if you need to quote it.
  • The translation is a modified version of Mordechai Cogan’s, which was published in W.H. Hallo and K.L. Younger, The Context of Scripture. Vol. II: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World (2003, Leiden and Boston), now adapted to Schaudig’s edition with the help of Bert van der Spek and Mr. M. Stolper
  • A scan of a drawing made by Th. Pinches can be found here.
  • The titles of the sections do not belong to the original text but are only there to help the reader.
  • An introduction to reading a page like this can be found here.
  • I offer a box of chocolate to the one who can tell me who is responsible for the fraudulent text.

Text of Fragment A

1 [ì-nu x x x] /x\-ni-šu
2 [x x x ki-i]b-ra-a-tì
3 [x x x] /x x\ GAL ma-tu-ú iš -šak-na a-na e-nu-tu ma-ti-šú
4 /ù?\ [x x x]-ši-li ú-ša-áš-ki-na se-ru-šu-un
5 ta-am-ši-li É-SAG-ÍL i-te-[pu-uš-ma x x x t]ì? a-na ÚRIki ù si-it-ta-a-tì ma-ha-za
6 pa-ra-as la si-ma-a-ti-šu-nu ta-[ak-li-im la-me-si x x x la] pa-lih u4-mi-šá-am-ma id-de-né-eb-bu-ub ù /ana ma-ag\-ri-tì
7 sat-tuk-ku ú-šab-ti-li ú-l[a-ap-pi-it pél-lu-de-e x x x ]-tak-ka-an qé-reb ma-ha-zi pa-la-ha dAMAR.UTU LUGAL DINGIRmeš i[g-m]ur kar-šu-uš-šu
8 le-mu-ut-ti URU-šu [i-t]e-né-ep-pu-/\ u4-mi-ša-am-/ma x x\ [x x x ÙG]meš-šú i-na ab-ša-a-ni la ta-ap-šu-úh-tì ú-hal-li-iq kul-lat-si-in
9 a-na ta-zi-im-ti-ši-na dEN.LÍL DINGIRmeš ez-zi-iš i-gu-ug-m[a x x x] ki-su-úr-šu-un DINGIRmeš a-ši-ib ŠÀ-bi-šu-nu i-zi-bu at-/ma\-an-šu-un
10 i-na ug-ga-ti-ša ú-še-ri-bi a-na qé-reb ŠU.AN.NAki dAMAR.UTU t[i-iz-qa-rudEN.LÍL DINGIRm]us-sa-ah-ra a-na nap-har da-ád-mi šá in-na-du-ú šu-bat-su-un
11 ù ÙGmeš KUR šu-me-ri ù URIki ša i-mu-ú ša-lam-ta-áš ú-sa-/ah\-hi-ir ka-/bat\-[ta-áš] ir-ta-ši ta-a-a-ra kul-lat ma-ta-a-ta ka-li-ši-na i-hi-it ib-re-e-ma
12 iš-te-’e-e-ma ma-al-ki i-šá-ru bi-bil ŠÀ-bi-ša it-ta-ma-ah qa-tu-uš-šu mKu-ra-áš LUGAL URU an-ša-an it-ta-bi ni-bi-it-su a-na ma-li-ku-tì kul-la-ta nap-har iz-zak-ra šu-/um-šú\
13 kurqu-ti-i gi-mir um-man-man-da ú-ka-an-ni-ša a-na še-pi-šu ÙGmeš sal-mat SAG.DU ša ú-ša-ak-ši-du qa-ta-a-šú
14 i-na ki-it-tì ù mi-šá-ru iš-te-né-’e-e-ši-na-a-tì dAMAR.UTU EN GAL ta-ru-ú ÙGmeš-šú ep-še-e-ti-ša dam-qa-a-ta ù ŠÀ-ba-šu i-ša-ra ha-di-iš ip-pa-li-i[s]
15 a-na URU-šu KÁ.DINGIRmeš ki a-la-ak-šu iq-bi ú-ša-as-bi-it-su-ma har-ra-nu TIN.TIRki ki-ma ib-ri ù tap-pe-e it-tal-la-ka i-da-a-šu
16 um-ma-ni-šu rap-ša-a-tì ša ki-ma me-e ÍD la ú-ta-ad-du-ú ni-ba-šu-un gišTUKULmeš-šu-nu sa-an-du-ma i-ša-ad-di-ha i-da-a-šu
17 ba-lu qab-li ù ta-ha-zi ú-še-ri-ba-áš qé-reb ŠU.AN.NAki URU-šu KÁ.DINGIRmeš ki i-ti-ir i-na šap-ša-qí, mdNÀ.NÍ.TUKU LUGAL la pa-li-hi-šu ú-ma-al-la-a qa-tu-uš-šú
18 ÙGmeš TIN.TIRkika-li-šu-nu nap-har KUR šu-me-ri u URIki ru-bé-e ù šak-ka-nak-ka ša-pal-šu ik-mi-sa ú-na-áš-ši-qu še-pu-uš-šu ih-du-ú a-na LUGAL-ú-ti-šú im-mi-ru pa-nu-uš-šú-un
19 be-lu ša i-na tu-kul-ti-ša ú-bal-li-tu mi-tu-ta-an i-na pu-uš-qu ù ú-de-e ig-mi-lu kul-la-ta-an ta-bi-iš ik-ta-ar-ra-bu-šu iš-tam-ma-ru zi-ki-ir-šu
20 a-na-ku mKu-ra-áš LUGAL kiš-šat LUGAL GAL LUGAL dan-nu LUGAL TIN.TIRki LUGAL KUR šu-me-ri ú ak-ka-di-i LUGAL kib-ra-a-ti er-bé-et-tì
21 DUMU mKa-am-bu-zi-ia LUGAL GAL LUGAL URU an-ša-an DUMU DUMU mKu-ra-áš LUGAL GAL LUGA[L U]RU an-ša-an ŠÀ.BAL.BAL mši-iš-pi-iš LUGAL GAL LUGAL URU an-šá-an
22 NUMUN da-ru-ú ša LUGAL-ú-tu ša dEN u dir-a-mu pa-la-a-šu a-na tu-ub ŠÀ-bi-šú-nu ih-ši-ha L[UGA]L-ut-su e-nu-ma a-n[a q]é-reb TIN.TIRkie-ru-bu sa-li-mi-iš
23 i-na ul-si ù ri-ša-a-tì i-na É.GAL ma-al-ki ar-ma-a šu-bat be-lu-tìdAMAR.UTU EN GAL ŠÀ-bi ri-it-pa-šu ša ra-/im\ TIN.TIRki ši-m[a]/a-tiš\ /iš-ku?-na\-an-ni-ma u4-mi-šam a-še-’a-a pa-la-/ah\-šú
24 um-ma-ni-ia rap-ša-tì i-na qé-reb TIN.TIRki i-ša-ad-di-ha šú-ul-ma-niš nap-har KU[R šu-me-ri] /ù\ URIki mu-gal-[l]i-tì ul ú-šar-ši
25 /URUki\ KÁ.DINGIR.RAki ù kul-lat ma-ha-zi-šu i-na ša-li-im-tì áš-te-’e-e DUMUmeš TIN.TIR[ki x x x š]a ki-ma la ŠÀ-[bi DING]IR-ma ab-šá-a-ni la si-ma-ti-šú-nu šu-ziz-/zu!\
26 an-hu-ut-su-un ú-pa-áš-ši-ha ú-ša-ap-ti-ir sa-ar-ma-šu-nu a-na ep-še-e-ti-[ia dam-qa-a-ti] dAMAR.UTU EN GA[L]-ú ih-de-e-ma
27 a-na ia-a-ti mKu-ra-áš LUGAL pa-li-ih-šu ù mKa-am-bu-zi-ia DUMU si-it ŠÀ-bi-[ia ù a-n]a nap-h[ar] um-ma-ni-ia
28 da-am-qí-íš ik-ru-ub-ma i-na šá-lim-tì ma-har-ša ta-bi-iš ni-it-t[a-al-la-ak i-na qí-bi-ti-šú] sir-ti nap-har LUGAL a-ši-ib BÁRAmeš
29 ša ka-li-iš kib-ra-a-ta iš-tu tam-tì e-li-tì a-di tam-tì šap-li-tì a-ši-ib n[a-gi-i né-su-tì] LUGALmeš KUR a-mur-ri-i a-ši-ib kuš-ta-ri ka-li-šú-un
30 bi-lat-su-nu ka-bi-it-tì ú-bi-lu-nim-ma qé-er-ba ŠU.AN.NAki ú-na-áš-ši-qu še-pu-ú-a iš-tu [ŠU.AN.NAk]i a-di URU aš-šurki ù MÙŠ-ERENki
31 a-kà-dèki KUR èš-nu-nak URU za-am-ba-an URU me-túr-nu BÀD.DINGIRki a-di pa-at kurqu-ti-i ma-ha-z[a e-be]r-ti ídIDIGNA ša iš-tu pa!-na-ma na-du-ú šu-bat-su-un
32 DINGIRmeš a-ši-ib ŠÀ-bi-šú-nu a-na áš-ri-šu-nu ú-tir-ma ú-šar-ma-a šu-bat da-rí-a-ta kul-lat ÙGmeš-šú-nu ú-pa-ah-hi-ra-am-ma ú-te-er da-ád-mi-šú-un
33 ù DINGIRmeš KUR šu-me-ri ù URIki ša mdNÀ.NÍ.TUKU a-na ug-ga-tì EN DINGIRmeš ú-še-ri-bi a-na qé-reb ŠU.AN.NAki i-na qí-bi-ti dAMAR.UTU EN GAL i-na ša-li-im-tì
34 i-na maš-ta-ki-šu-nu ú-še-ši-ib šú-ba-at tu-ub ŠÀ-bi {ut} kul-la-ta DINGIRmeš ša ú-še-ri-bi a-na qé-er-bi ma-ha-zi-šu-un
35 u4-mi-ša-am ma-har dEN ù dša a-ra-ku U4meš-ia li-ta-mu-ú lit-taz-ka-ru a-ma-a-ta du-un-qí-ia ù a-na dAMAR.UTU EN-ia li-iq-bu-ú ša mKu-ra-áš {-áš} LUGAL pa-li-hi-ka u mKa-am-bu-zi-ia DUMU-šú

Text of Fragment B

36 /x\ [x x x- i]b šu-nu lu-ú /x x x x x x x x\ ÙGmeš TIN.TIRki /ik-tar-ra-bu\ LUGAL-ú-tu KUR.KUR ka-li-ši-na šu-ub-ti né-eh-tì ú-še-ši-ib
37 [x  x  x KUR.]GImušen 2 UZ.TURmušen ù 10 TU.GUR4mušen.meš e-li KUR.GImušen UZ.TURmušen.meš ù TU.GUR4mušen.meš
38 [x x x u4-m]i-šam ú-ta-ah-hi-id BÀD im-gur-dEN.LÍL BÀD GAL-a ša TIN.TIRk[i ma-as-s]ar-/ta\-šú du-un-nu-nù áš-te-’e-e-ma
39 [x x x] ka-a-ri a-gur-ru šáha-ri-si ša LUGAL mah-ri i-p[u-šu-ma la ú-ša]k-/li-lu\ ši-pi-ir-šu
40 [x x x la ú-ša-as-hi-ru URU] /a\-na ki-da-a-ni ša LUGAL ma-ah-ra la i-pu-šu um-man-ni-šu di-ku-u[t ma-ti-šu i-na (or: a-na) q]é-/reb\ ŠU.AN.NAki
41 [x x x i-na ESIR.HÁD.RÁ]/A\ ù SIG4.AL.ÙR.RA eš-ši-iš e-pu-uš-ma [ú-šak-lil ši-pir-ši]-in
42 [x x x gišIGmeš gišEREN MAH]meš ta-ah-lu-up-tì ZABAR as-ku-up-pu ù nu-ku-š[e-e pi-ti-iq e-ri-i e-ma meš]i-na
43 [ú-ra-at-ti x x x š]i-ti-ir šu-mu šá mAN.ŠÁR-DÙ-IBILA LUGAL a-lik mah-ri-[ia šá qer-ba-šu ap-pa-a]l-sa! [x x x] An inscription with the name of Aššurbanipal, a king who had preceded [me, I s]aw [in its midst].
44 [x x x]/x x x\[x x x]-x- [...]
45 [x x x]/x x x

Literature

  • J. Harmatta, “Les modèles littéraires de l’ édit babylonien de Cyrus”, in: Acta Iranica 1 (1974) 29-44
  • Amélie Kuhrt, “The Cyrus Cylinder and Achaemenid Imperial Policy” in: Journal for the Study of the Old Testament 25 (1983) 83-97
  • R.J. van der Spek, “Did Cyrus the Great introduce a new policy towards subdued nations?” in: Persica 10 (1982) 278-283
  • R.J. van der Spek, “Cyrus the Great, Exiles and Foreign Gods.
    A Comparison of Assyrian and Persian Policies on Subject Nations” in: W.F.M. Henkelman, C.E. Jones, M. Kozuh, C. Woods (eds.), Extraction and Control: Studies in Honor of Matthew W. Stolper

\[x x a-na d]a-rí-a-tì

Enquiries:

Jewel of Dur-Imgur-dEnlîl…



“…i-šam û-ta-ah-hi-id dur im-gur-dEN.LÎL dur GAL-a ša TIN.TIRki …ar-ta-šû du-un-nu-nû âš-te-’e-e-ma”   

“… I sought to strengthen the defense of the wall of Imgur-Enlil, the great wall of Babylon…”

Cyrus Cylinder: 38


In the absence of any publicly known information to the contrary, it is reasonable to assume that Cyrus Cylinder was found in the ruined great wall of Babylon, or alternatively from the ruins of the Temple of E’sagila, where it was perhaps ceremonially buried by Kuruš nearly 24 centuries ago. Since the last lines of the Cyrus Cylinder inscription refer to the discovery of Aššurbanipal’s foundation tablet in the great wall of Babylon, the view favors that the Cyrus Cylinder was deposited in the foundation of Dur-Imgur-Enlil, the great wall of Babylon, during the repair of the great wall, resting next to or replacing Aššurbanipal’s foundation tablet which was deposited there many generations earlier.

The Cyrus Cylinder, which in the absence of other known surviving materials to-date, can be reasonably interpreted as a close relative of the royal proclamation of Kuruš after the capture of Babylon, corroborates other contemporary accounts by the ancient Hellenes, Babylonian, and Judean writers about the fall of Babylon into the hands of the Persians.

Such ancient accounts include the Chronicle of Nabû-nâ’id, the Verse account of Nabû-nâ’id, and the Biblical accounts of Daniel, Ezra and the Second Isaiah, as well as the more colorful, somewhat historical, Histories of Herodotos, where the strong Homeric overtone of the literary account is unmistakable: As ancient Hellenes entered the fortified city of Troy, hidden in the belly of the Trojan Horse, the Persians of Herodotus enter the fortified city of Babylon under the cover of darkness, after diverting the course of Euphrates River, that runs through Babylon, while Babylonians are enjoying themselves in a drunken festival. Literary similarities end, where Hellenes sacked and burned Troy and slaughtered the Trojans, while the Persians enter and restore the order to Babylon without shedding blood.

As already mentioned, in 1880s, the knowledge of the Akkadian language was less than two decades old and the transliteration and translation of Cyrus Cylinder, first published in 1880, has gone through a number of revisions as the inflective language of the ancient Assyrians and Babylonians has become better known to scholars and philologists.

The English translation of Cyrus Cylinder in 2006 by Piotr Michalowski, based on the translation and transliteration of the original Akkadian text by the Assyriologist Hanspeter Schaudig in Die Inschriften Nabonids von Babylon und Kyros’ des Großen, is provided on the website of the British Museum, along with a short physical description and the current view of the museum about the historical value of the inscription.

Here are the translations of a few sample lines by various scholars, pointing out to variations in available translations. The transliteration is from the original Akkadian text by the Hanspeter Schaudig:

Lines
Transliteration of Akkadian
H. Schaudig 2001
H. C. Rawlinson
1909
R. W. Rogers
1926
P. Michalowski
2006
1-8
[î-nu ...]… -ni-šu

[... ki-i]b-ra-a-tî

… GAL ma-tu-û iš-šak-na a-na e-nu-tu ma-ti-šû …

û? …-ši-li û-ša-âš-ki-na se-ru-šu-un

ta-am-ši-li Ê-SAG-ÎL i-te-[pu-uš-ma ... t]î a-na ÛRIki û si-it-ta-a-tî ma-ha-za

pa-ra-as la si-ma-a-ti-šu-nu ta-[ak-li-im la-me-si ... la] pa-lih u-mi-šâ-am-ma id-de-nê-eb-bu-ub û ana ma-ag-ri-tî

sat-tuk-ku û-šab-ti-li û-l[a-ap-pi-it pêl-lu-de-e ... iš]-tak-ka-an qê-reb ma-ha-zi pa-la-ha dAMAR.UTU LUGAL DINGIRmeš i[g-m]ur kar-šu-uš-šu

le-mu-ut-ti URU-šu [i-t]e-nê-ep-pu-uš u-mi-ša-am-ma … [... ÛG]meš-šû i-na ab-ša-a-ni la ta-ap-šu-ûh-tî û-hal-li-iq kul-lat-si-in

(one line destroyed)

[r]ims (of the world)… a weakling has been installed as the enû of his country;
[the correct images of the gods he removed from their thrones, imi]tations he ordered to place upon them.
A replica of the temple Esagila he has… for Ur and the other sacred cities inappropriate rituals… daily he did blabber [incorrect prayers]. He (furthermore) interrupted in a fiendish way the regular offerings, he did… he established within the sacred cities.
The worship of Marduk, the king of the gods, he [chang]ed into abomination, daily he used to do evil against his (i.e. Marduk’s) city… He [tormented] its [inhabitant]s with corvée-work (lit.: a yoke) without relief, he ruined them all.

… his troops

[four] quarters of the world

a weakling was established as ruler over the land.

and … a similar one he appointed over them,

like Essagila he made…  to Ur and the rest of the cities,

a command dishonoring them… he planned daily and in enmity,

he caused the daily offerings to cease; he appointed… he established within the city. The worship of Marduk, king of the gods…

He showed hostility toward his city daily… his people he brought all of them to ruin through servitude without rest.

[when...] his… [...] the regions…, an insignificant (candidate) was installed as high priestess (of the Moon) in his land, and [...] he imposed upon them.
He made a replica of the Esaggil, [... established] improper rites for Ur and the remaining cult centres
as well as [unclean offer]ings; daily he continuously uttered unfaithful (prayers); furthermore he maliciously suspended the regular offerings and upset the rites. He plotted to end the worship of Marduk and continuously perpetuated evil against his city. Daily [he... ] brought all his [people] to ruin by (imposing) toils without rest.
20-22
a-na-ku mKu-ra-âš LUGAL kiš-šat LUGAL GAL LUGAL dan-nu LUGAL TIN.TIRki LUGAL KUR šu-me-ri û ak-ka-di-i LUGAL kib-ra-a-ti er-bê-et-tî

DUMU mKa-am-bu-zi-ia LUGAL GAL LUGAL URU an-ša-an DUMU DUMU mKu-ra-áš LUGAL GAL LUGA[L U]RU an-ša-an ŠÂ.BAL.BAL mši-iš-pi-iš LUGAL GAL LUGAL URU an-ša-an

NUMUN da-ru-û ša LUGAL-û-tu ša dEN u dNÀ ir-a-mu pa-la-a-šu a-na tu-ub ŠÂ-bi-šû-nu ih-ši-ha L[UGA]L-ut-su e-nu-ma a-n[a q]ê-reb TIN.TIRki e-ru-bu sa-li-mi-iš

I am Cyrus, king of the world, great king, legitimate king, king of Babylon, king of Sumer and Akkad, king of the four rims (of the earth), son of Cambyses (Ka-am-nu-zi-ia), great king, king of Anshan, grandson of Teispes (Ši-iš-pi-iš), great king, king of Anshan, of a family (which) always (exercised) kingship; whose rule Bel and Nebo love, whom they want as king to please their hearts.
I am Cyrus, king of the world, the great king, the powerful king, king of Babylon, king of Sumer and Akkad, king of the four quarters of the world,

son of Cambyses, the great king, king of the city of Anshan, grandson of Cyrus, the great king, king of the city of Anshan; great-grandson of Teïspes, the great king, king of the city of Anshan;

eternal seed of royalty whose rule Bel and Nabu love, whose government they rejoice in their heart. When I made my triumphal entrance into Babylon,

I am Cyrus, king of the world, great king, mighty king, king of Babylon, king of the lands of Sumer and Akkad, king of the four quarters of the universe, son of Cambyses, great king, king of Anshan, descendant of Teispes, great king, king of Anshan, from an ancient royal lineage, whose reign is beloved by (the gods) Marduk and Nabu, whose kingship they desired to make them glad.
32
DINGIRmeš a-ši-ib ŠÂ-bi-šû-nu a-na âš-ri-šu-nu û-tir-ma û-šar-ma-a šu-bat da-rî-a-ta kul-lat ÛGmeš-šû-nu û-pa-ah-hi-ra-am-ma û-te-er da-âd-mi-šû-un
I returned to these (sacred) cities on the other side of the Tigris, the sanctuaries of which have been ruins for a long time, the images which (used) to live therein and established for them permanent sanctuaries. I (also) gathered all their (former) inhabitants and returned (to them) their inhabitation.
The gods, who dwelt in them, I brought back to their places, and caused them to dwell in a habitation for all time. All the inhabitants I collected and restored them to their dwelling places.
I returned to these sanctuaries on the other side of the Tigris, sanctuaries founded in ancient times, the images that had been in them there and I made their dwellings permanent. I also gathered all their people and returned to them their habitations.



Cyrus Cylinder

[...] for eternity.
The latest English translation of Cyrus Cylinder [2009] by Dr. Irving Finkel, who is the British Museum’s curator in charge of cuneiform inscriptions on clay tablets from ancient Mesopotamia, is provided on the website of the British Museum.

A short physical description [length 22.5 cm, roughly 9 inches] and the current view of the British Museum about the historical value of Cyrus Cylinder are also provided.

From
British Museum Website:

[When...] … [... wor]ld quarters [...] … a low person was put in charge of his country, but he set [a (...) counter]feit over them. He ma[de] a counterfeit of Esagil [and ...] … for Ur and the rest of the cult-cities. Rites inappropriate to them, [impure] fo[od- offerings ...] [dis]respectful [...]were daily gabbled, and, intolerably, he brought the daily offerings to a halt; he inter[fered with the rites and] instituted [...] within the sanctuaries. In his mind, reverential fear of Marduk, king of the gods, ca[me to an e]nd. He did yet more evil to his city every day; … his [people...], he brought ruin on them all by a yoke without relief. Enlil-of-the-gods became extremely angry at their complaints, and [...] their territory. The gods who lived within them left their shrines, angry that he had made them enter into Babylon (Shuanna). Ex[alted Marduk, Enlil-of-the-Go]ds, relented. He changed his mind about all the settlements whose sanctuaries were in ruins and the population of the land of Sumer and Akkad who had become like corpses, and took pity on them. He inspected and checked all the countries, seeking for the upright king of his choice. He took under his hand Cyrus, king of the city of Anshan, and called him by his name, proclaiming him aloud for the kingship over all of everything. He made the land of the Qutu and all the Medean troops prostrate themselves at his feet, while he looked out in justice and righteousness for the black-headed people whom he had put under his care. Marduk, the great lord, who nurtures his people, saw with pleasure his fine deeds and true heart and ordered that he should go to his city, Babylon. He had him take the road to Tintir, and, like a friend and companion, he walked at his side. His vast troops whose number, like the water in a river, could not be counted, marched fully-armed at his side. He had him enter without fighting or battle right into Shuanna; he saved his city Babylon from hardship. He handed over to him Nabonidus, the king who did not fear him. All the people of Tintir, of all Sumer and Akkad, nobles and governors, bowed down before him and kissed his feet, rejoicing over his kingship and their faces shone. The lord through whose trust all were rescued from death and who saved them all from distress and hardship, they blessed him sweetly and praised his name.
I am Cyrus, king of the universe, the great king, the powerful king, king of Babylon, king of Sumer and Akkad, king of the four quarters of the world, son of Cambyses, the great king, king of the city of Anshan, grandson of Cyrus, the great king, ki[ng of the ci]ty of Anshan, descendant of Teispes, the great king, king of Anshan, the perpetual seed of kingship, whose reign Bel and Nabu love, and with whose kingship, to their joy, they concern themselves.

When I went as harbinger of peace i[nt]o Babylon I founded my sovereign residence within the royal palace amid celebration and rejoicing. Marduk, the great lord, bestowed on me as my destiny the great magnanimity of one who loves Babylon, and I every day sought him out in awe. My vast troops marched peaceably in Babylon, and the whole of [Sumer] and Akkad had nothing to fear. I sought the welfare of the city of Babylon and all its sanctuaries. As for the population of Babylon [..., w]ho as if without div[ine intention] had endured a yoke not decreed for them, I soothed their weariness, I freed them from their bonds(?). Marduk, the great lord, rejoiced at [my good] deeds, and he pronounced a sweet blessing over me, Cyrus, the king who fears him, and over Cambyses, the son [my] issue, [and over] my all my troops, that we might proceed further at his exalted [command]. All kings who sit on thrones, from every quarter, from the Upper Sea to the Lower Sea, those who inhabit [remote distric]ts (and) the kings of the land of Amurru who live in tents, all of them, brought their weighty tribute into Shuanna, and kissed my feet. From [Shuanna] I sent back to their places to the city of Ashur and Susa, Akkad, the land of Eshnunna, the city of Zamban, the city of Meturnu, Der, as far as the border of the land of Qutu – the sanctuaries across the river Tigris – whose shrines had earlier become dilapidated, the gods who lived therein, and made permanent sanctuaries for them. I collected together all of their people and returned them to their settlements, and the gods of the land of Sumer and Akkad which Nabonidus – to the fury of the lord of the gods – had brought into Shuanna, at the command of Marduk, the great lord, I returned them unharmed to their cells, in the sanctuaries that make them happy. May all the gods that I returned to their sanctuaries, every day before Marduk and Nabu, ask for a long life for me, and mention my good deeds, and say to Marduk, my lord, this: “Cyrus, the king who fears you, and Cambyses his son, may their … [...] [... ...].” The population of Babylon call blessings on my kingship, and I have enabled all the lands to live in peace. Every day I copiously supplied [... ge]ese, two ducks and ten pigeons more than the geese, ducks and pigeons [...]. I sought out to strengthen the guard on the wall Imgur-Enlil, the great wall of Babylon, and [...] the quay of baked brick on the bank of the moat which an earlier king had bu[ilt but not com]pleted, [I ...] its work. [... which did not surround the city] outside, which no earlier king had built, his troops, the levee from [his land, in/to] Shuanna. [... with bitume]n and baked brick I built anew, and [completed its wor]k. [...] great [doors of cedarwood] with copper cladding. [I installed all] their doors, threshold sla[bs and door fittings with copper par]ts. [...] I s[aw within it] an inscription of Ashurbanipal, a king who preceded me, [...] … [...] … [... for] ever.

Se puede continuar con los comentarios en esta págia web( en inglés)

www.pavasta.com/…/jewelofdurimgurenlil.htm-


Filed under: ACTUALIDAD,Arqueologia,ARTÍCULOS,General,H. Próximo Oriente,HISTORIA ANTIGUA

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9 Comentarios.

  • Vicenta Moncho Gascón dice:

    Me pregunto si en la red, aparte de la transcripción y traducción del texto del cilindro, hay algún documento colgado de la escritura en cuneiforme. Es dificil acceder, para un estudiante, a esta bibliografía, sobretodo por la falta de práctica, así que muchas gracias por publicar este artículo

  • Ana Vázquez Hoys dice:

    Hay transcritos.Pero en cuneiforme no los he buscado.Supongo que habrá. Hay que tener sistemas de reconocimiento de los signos, así que todo será ponerse.
    Un saludo
    Ana Vázquez HOys

  • Eduardo Garijo dice:

    ¿Declaración de derechos humanos?Más bien un poco de propaganda para el antiguo régimen Persa.
    Sobre la copia original en cuneiforme, que supongo que será lo que buscas, en la red esta complicado. Las ediciones original ( H.C. Rawlinson, Th.G. Pinches, A Selection from the Miscellaneous Inscriptions of Assyria and Babylonia 1884, 1909 London) hasta donde yo se no esta digitalizada todavia, Y EN España las bibliotecas de Asiriología brillan por su ausenia…

    De todas formas, intenta esto:
    http://www.archive.org

    aquí tienes muchas ediciones origanales de texto cuneiformes (libres de Copyright), y tal vez acaben colgándola por aquí.(de hecho, puedes recomendarlo a los administradores) Lo que si que tienes es una edición de textos de Ciro, realizada por Strassmaier, echale un vistazo, aunque creo recordar que el cilindro no estaba. De cualquier forma, si al final consigues hacerte con el dibujo original, tendras que contrastarlo con transcrpciones, trasliteraciones y traducciones posteriores ya que la de fechas tan antiguas (en el caso de que haya, normalmente sólo suele haber i
    índices) estan bastante desfasadas. La edicion de Schaudig es bastante buena y fiable aunque creo que no trae copia dibujo, y vale una pasta!
    Aunque te recomiendo que primero aprendas algo de acadio y/ o persa , ya que sacaras mas provecho.

    Animo y suerte.

  • Ana Vázquez Hoys dice:

    Pues mira: No estaba yo pensando en otra cosa….Si la utilizaron de propaganda los iraníes,díselo a ellos.
    No mates al mensajero.
    Un saludo

  • Ana Vázquez Hoys dice:

    La última edición del texto acadio es:

    * Hanspeter Schaudig, Die Inschriften Nabonids von Babylon und Kyros’ des Großen, samt den in ihrem Umfeld entstandenen Tendenzschriften. Textausgabe und Grammatik. (2001 Münster, Ugarit-Verlag) (en línea)

    Traducciones:

    * Rogers, Robert William: Cuneiform Parallels to the Old Testament (1912), New York, Eaton & Mains. (Online: solo el fragmento A).
    * Pritchard, James B. (ed.): Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament (ANET) (1950, 1955, 1969). Traducción de A. L. Oppenheim. (fragmentos A y B).
    * Brosius, Maria (ed.): The Persian Empire from Cyrus II to Artaxerxes I (2000, London Association of Classical Teachers (LACT) 16, London.

  • Ana Vázquez Hoys dice:

    La opinión es de Naciones Unidas: Abajo está el link. Lo del acadio y el persa es mear fuera del tiesto.Lo demás, matar al mensajero.Pasate por el CSIS .Va habiendo bibliografía y buenos asiriólogos.

    Cyrus Cylinder

    Farman-e-Kourosh also known as the ‘Cyrus the Great Cylinder’, is an artifact of the Persian Empire, consisting of the first declaration of human rights issued by the emperor Cyrus the Great inscribed in Babylonian (Akkadian) cuneiform on a clay cylinder.

    The charter of Cyrus the Great, a baked-clay cylinder, was discovered in 1878 in excavation of the site of Babylon by Assyrian archaeologist, Hormuz Rassam. Inscribed in Akkadian cuneiform containing a detailed account by Cyrus the Great, which described his conquest of Babylon in 539 BCE, and his human treatment of his conquered subjects. Length of this cylinder is 22.86 Centimetre, and it is now kept in the British Museum; it is no exaggeration to say that it is one of the most precious historical records of the world. Cyrus’ cylinder, resonate for Iranians at a very profound level, which has become part of Iran’s cultural and national identity.

    cyrus_cilinder1

    Cylinder inscription describes the Great King not as a conqueror, but as a liberator and the legitimate successor to the crown of Mesopotamia. Cyrus the Great took the title of “King of Babylon and King of the Land”. Cyrus had no thought of forcing his new subjects into single mould of Persianhood, and had the wisdom to leave unchanged the institution of each kingdom he attached to the Imperial Crown.

    cyrus_cylinder

    The document has been hailed as world’s first universal declaration of human rights, and in 1971 the United Nations was published translation of it in all the official U.N. languages.
    United Nations Under-Secretary General Shashi Tharoor with replica of Cyrus Cylinder at UN headquarters, New York.

    United Nations Under-Secretary General Shashi Tharoor with replica of Cyrus Cylinder at UN headquarters, New York.

    In the Charter, after introducing himself and mentioning the names of his father, first, second, and third ancestors, Cyrus says that he is the monarch of Iran, Babylon, and the four continents:

    “I am Kourosh (Cyrus), King of the world, great king, mighty king, king of Babylon, king of the land of Sumer and Akkad, king of the four quarters, son of Camboujiyah (Cambyases), great king, king of Anshân, grandson of Kourosh (Cyrus), great king, king of Anshân, descendant of Chaish-Pesh (Teispes), great king, king of Anshân, progeny of an unending royal line, whose rule Bel and Nabu cherish, whose kingship they desire for their hearts, pleasure. When I well -disposed, entered Babylon, I set up a seat of domination in the royal palace amidst jubilation and rejoicing. Marduk the great god, caused the big-hearted inhabitations of Babylon to ……………… me, I sought daily to worship him.

    He continues:

    At my deeds Marduk, the great lord, rejoiced and to me, Kourosh (Cyrus), the king who worshipped him, and to Camboujiyah (Cambyases), my son, the offspring of (my) loins, and to all my troops he graciously gave his blessing, and in good sprit before him we glorified exceedingly his high divinity. All the kings who sat in throne rooms, throughout the four quarters, from the Upper to the Lower Sea, those who dwelt in ………………., all the kings of the West Country, who dwelt in tents, brought me their heavy tribute and kissed my feet in Babylon. From … to the cities of Ashur, Susa, Agade and Eshnuna, the cities of Zamban, Meurnu, Der as far as the region of the land of Gutium, the holy cities beyond the Tigris whose sanctuaries had been in ruins over a long period, the gods whose abode is in the midst of them, I returned to their places and housed them in lasting abodes.

    I gathered together all their inhabitations and restored (to them) their dwellings. The gods of Sumer and Akkad whom Nabounids had, to the anger of the lord of the gods, brought into Babylon. I, at the bidding of Marduk, the great lord, made to dwell in peace in their habitations, delightful abodes.

    May all the gods whom I have placed within their sanctuaries address a daily prayer in my favour before Bel and Nabu, that my days may be long, and may they say to Marduk my lord, “May Kourosh (Cyrus) the King, who reveres thee, and Camboujiyah (Cambyases) his son …”

    And:

    Now that I put the crown of kingdom of Iran, Babylon, and the nations of the four directions on the head with the help of (Ahura) Mazda, I announce that I will respect the traditions, customs and religions of the nations of my empire and never let any of my governors and subordinates look down on or insult them until I am alive. From now on, till (Ahura) Mazda grants me the kingdom favor, I will impose my monarchy on no nation. Each is free to accept it , and if any one of them rejects it , I never resolve on war to reign. Until I am the king of Iran, Babylon, and the nations of the four directions, I never let anyone oppress any others, and if it occurs , I will take his or her right back and penalize the oppressor.

    And until I am the monarch, I will never let anyone take possession of movable and landed properties of the others by force or without compensation. Until I am alive, I prevent unpaid, forced labor. To day, I announce that everyone is free to choose a religion. People are free to live in all regions and take up a job provided that they never violate other’s rights.

    No one could be penalized for his or her relatives’ faults. I prevent slavery and my governors and subordinates are obliged to prohibit exchanging men and women as slaves within their own ruling domains. Such a traditions should be exterminated the world over.

    I implore to (Ahura) Mazda to make me succeed in fulfilling my obligations to the nations of Iran (Persia), Babylon, and the ones of the four directions.’

    This is a confirmation that the Charter of freedom of Humankind issued by Cyrus the Great on his coronation day in Babylon could be considered superior to the Human Rights Manifesto issued by the French revolutionaries in their first national assembly. The Human Rights Manifesto looks very interesting in its kind regarding the expressions and composition, but the Charter of Freedom issued twenty-three centuries before that by the Iranian monarch sounds more spiritual.

    Comparing the Human Rights Manifesto of the French National Assembly and the Charter approved by the United Nations with the Charter of Freedom of Cyrus, the latter appears more valuable considering its age, explicitness, and rejection of the superstitions of the ancient world.
    Cyrus Cylinder depicted on a postage stamps issued on 12 October 1971 to celebrate the 2,500-year anniversary of the Imperial Regime in Iran

    Cyrus Cylinder depicted on a postage stamps issued on 12 October 1971 to celebrate the 2,500-year anniversary of the Imperial Regime in Iran

    After entering Babylon and after the winter of 539 BCE, on the first day of spring, he was officially crowned. The description of the coronation of Cyrus is the most elaborate one in the world written by the Greek philosopher, politician, and historian Xenephon. On the day of coronation, Cyrus read the Charter of Freedom out after he put on the crown with his hand in Marduk Temple.

    Uncertain and the full text of the Charter were unavailable until an inscription was foundering the excavation works in the old city of Ur in Mesopotamia. After the translation of the words, it was found out that the document was the same Charter.

    (line 24) My numerous troops moved about undisturbed in the midst of Babylon. I did not allow anyone to terrorise the land of Sumer and Akkad.

    (25) I kept in view the needs of Babylon and all its sanctuaries to promote their well being. The citizens of Babylon …………….. I lifted their unbecoming yoke.

    (26) Their dilapidated dwellings I restored. I put an end to their misfortunes.

    The document is also confirms many of the details recorded in Ezra 1:2-4, in which Cyrus the Great decreed that the Israelites could return to Judea from captivity to rebuild the temple in In 537 BCE.

    Cyrus Cylinder chosen as the symbol of 2,500-year anniversary of the Imperial Regime in Iran

    Before the discovery of this artifact, many sceptic Western historians believed that the idea of a Zoroastrian emperor like Cyrus the Great, simply allowing a conquered people like the Jews to return to their homeland and rebuild their temple, (as described in detail in Ezra 1:2-4), simply was not credible and was propagated by Persians. Nevertheless, the Cyrus Cylinder as well as Biblical statements depict the exact scenario, verifying in detail corresponds with each other.The biblical texts were made by both Isaiah and Jeremiah regarding this equally great king.

    This incredible find shows that the Emperor Cyrus did indeed allowed many of the nations he conquered not only to practice their various beliefs, (a practice unheard of at that time), but financially and politically supported the return of several ethnic groups (including the Jews) who were captive in Babylon to return to their original homelands, rebuilt their temples and restored their articles of worship, from the imperial treasury and at his own expense. (in accordance to what is said in saiah 45:13).The Biblical statements are also confirm almost all of the significant of the Cyrus Cylinder and Cyrus a benevolent character.
    http://www.niasnet.org/…/cyruscylinderhttp

    Una página web iraní americana

  • Eduardo Garijo dice:

    No pretendía decir que como autora del Blog estuviera haciendo propaganda en favor de nadie, de hecho creo que no lo he dicho, solo comentaba que la noticia me parecía bastante propagandística, como se puede ver en algunos enlaces citados en los que diferentes cientificos opinan sobre el tema. Si se ha entendido de otra forma por la brevedad de mi primer comentario, sintiéndose de alguna forma ofendida, mis disculpas, no era esa mi intención.
    Lo que no entiendo es “lo del tiesto”. Supongo que si alguien quiere una copia de un dibujo de un texto en cuniforme, creo que será para echarle un vistazo y contrastarlo con las transcripción,transliteraciones y traducciones. Como bien se dice, para los que estan interesados en Próximo Oriente Antiguo, la dificultad de acceder a material y bibliografía sobre el mismo es enorme. Mi consejo de todo a 100 viene desde mi experiencia personal ya que me he encontrado en las mismas que Vicenta, y he comprobado que con unas nociones basicas de como funcionan estas lenguas (nadie esta hablando de doctorarse en Asiriología, cosa imposible en España por cierto) se le podría sacar mucho mas jugo, y si le interesaba la época, unas pinceladas basicas de acadio y/o persa no vendrían mal, pero también es cierto que cada uno funcionamos de forma diferente.
    Sobre las bibliotecas, es cierto que sitios como el CSIC y algunas universidades comienzan a tener algo de bibliografía sobre Oriente, pero ni de lejos se acercan a una biblioteca de Asiriología. Suelen tener más bien material relacionado con lo que se dedican los investigadores, por lo que tienen bastante lagunas (habrá que ver que tal esta la biblioteca del Instituto Bíblico Oriental de León ). Aunque supongo que esto es mejor que nada.

    Saludos

  • Ana Vázquez Hoys dice:

    Simplemente quería decir que este es un blog para difundir la cultura antigua y dar la bibliografía especializada no sólo es mear fuera del tiesto,sino una chorrada que no suelo hacer .
    Si quiero enviar a mis alumnos a las fuentes literarias lo hago en clase.No en público.
    En cuanto a la asiriología, no sólo se hace lo que se puede,sino que a fuerza de trabajo y estudio propio,muchos profesores que amamos el Próximo Oriente y Egipto etc..sacamos adelante a fururos asiriólogos/egiptólogos, a los que,lamentablemente,tenemos que “exportar”para que sigan formándose.
    Lo que no es poco.
    En cuanto a propaganda o no,mi labor en este blog a menudo acaba así:Constatando la existencia de diversas fuentes antiguas ,difundiéndolas y dando las opiniones ajenas.Yo creo que no dije que queria un dibujo de un texto en cuneiforme, porque ,repito, me parece una bobada ponerlo aquí.Pero he dado la transcripción por si alguien lo busca.La del British.

    Un saludo



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