31 dic 08

Tablilla de Venus de Ammisaduqa(c. 1646–c. 1626 bC):Punto de partida de todas las cronologías antiguas

La Tablilla de Venus de Ammisaduqa recuperada de la biblioteca de  Asurbanipal enNínive (actual Mosul, en Iraq), es un texto del siglo VII a. C., copia de un texto babilonio unos mil años anterior, que recoge observaciones astronómicas de la aparición y desaparición del planeta Venus realizadas durante el reinado de Ammisaduqa, rey de la I DInastía amorita de Babilonia y cuarto sucesor de Hammurabi.

JSTOR: Notes on the Venus Tablet of Ammisaduqa -

NOTES ON THE VENUS TABLET OF AMMISADUQA C. B. F. Walker The British Museum Since the publication of the fundamental edition of the Venus Tablet of
links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-0256(198421)36%3A1%3C64%3ANOTVTO%3E2.0.CO… – Páginas similares
de CBF Walker1984

 

 

 

           l

Actualmente se encuentra en elel Museo Británico.

Fue publicada por primera vez en 1870 por Henry Creswicke Rawlinson y George Smith como tablilla 63, en «Tablet of Movements of the Planet Venus and their Influences» (The Cuneiform Inscriptions of Western Asia, volumen III).

La importancia de la tablilla para fijar la cronología absoluta de la dinastía de Hammurabi y por ende, la de toda Mesopotamia  y sus comtmporáneos durante ese periodo fue reconocida por Franz Xaver Kugler en 1912, cuando consiguió identificar el “año del trono dorado” (nombre de año utilizado por los babilonios como sistema de datación) con el octavo año del reinado de Ammisaduqa.

A partir de la datación, por parte de los astrónomos, de las observaciones astronómicas del planeta Venus descritas en esta tablilla de Ammisaduqa , y conociendo la duración del reinado de cada rey de dicha dinastía gracias a las Listas Reales, es posible ubicar  exactamente en el tiempo absoluto  el octavo año del reinado de Ammisaduqa y por lo tanto el del resto de reyes de la dinastía y los demas reyes del Próximo Oriente

Sin embargo, los astrónomos no se han puesto de acuerdo en la datación, debido a las lagunas y a la ambigüedad del texto, por lo que se han propuesto varias fechas:

y aún hay Ultralarga y Ultracorta      http://xfacts.com/iraq2003/4.html

 

 

the dates inferred for the beginning of the lunar observations being the dates 1702, 1646 and 1582 respectively. The information copied on the surviving tablet was first compiled during the reign of King Ammisaduqa, grandson of Hammurabi of the First Dynasty of Babylon. The tablet is currently part of the British Museum collections.

First published in 1870 by Henry Creswicke Rawlinson and George Smith as tablet 63, in “Tablet of Movements of the Planet Venus and their Influences” (The Cuneiform Inscriptions of Western Asia, volume III), the tablet’s significance for corroborating Babylonian chronology was first recognised by Franz Xaver Kugler in 1912, when he could identify the enigmatic “Year of the Golden Throne” (“Venus” tablet K.160) with the 8th year of the reign of Ammisaduqa. Since then, this 7th-century BC copy has been variously interpreted to support several chronologies in the 2nd millennium BC.

It has been the basis of most assumptions that there was a link between a fixed lunar calendar and the 56/64 year cycles of the visibility of Venus. Recent studies have shown the prority of the 8 year cycle. The lunar dates for Venus from the Middle Chronology (1646-1625 BC) were miscalculated in our early 20th century as 275 years earlier, 243-year Venus plus 32 years (4 × 8 years), implying that the Biblical Patriarch Abram knew Hammurabi as Amraphel (42 years 2067-2025 BC). Hammurabi was subsequently corrected to 1792-1750 BC, but this is now under challenge by the various Ultra-Low Chronologies. Possibly the Biblical Amraphel matches the 9-year reign of AmarSin of 3rd dynasty Ur (1943-1934 BC) and since the Ur III dynasty ended 25 lunar years later (IbbiSin 1925-1900 BC) the Hindu and Nordic concepts of 1900 BC as Chaldea’s year 3600 are understandable.

Contents

The dates

Year 1 inferior Venus sets on Shabatu 15 and after 3 days rises on Shabatu 18

Year 2 superior Venus vanishes E on Arahsamnu 21 and after 1 month 25 days appears W on Tebetu 16

Year 3 inferior Venus sets on Ululu 29 and after 16 days rises on Tashritu 15

Year 4 superior Venus vanishes E on Dumuzi 3 and after 2 months 6 days appears W on Ululu 9

Year 5 inferior Venus sets on Nisan 29 and after 12 days rises on Ayar 11

Year 5 superior Venus vanishes E on Kislimu 27 and after 2 months 3 days appears W on Shabatu 30

Year 6 inferior Venus sets on Arahsamnu 28 and after 3 days rises on Kislimu 1

Year 7 superior Venus vanishes E on Abu 30 and after 2 months appears W on Tashritu 30

Year 8 inferior Venus sets on Dumuzi 9 and after 17 days rises on Dumuzi 26

Year 8 superior Venus vanishes E on Adar 27 and after 2 months 16 days appears W on Simanu 13

Year 9 inferior Venus sets on Adar 12 and after 2 days rises on Adar 14

Year 10 superior Venus vanishes E on Arahsamnu 17 and after 1 month 25 days appears W on Tebetu 12

Year 11 inferior Venus sets on Ululu 25 and after 16 days rises on II Ululu 11

Year 12 superior Venus vanishes E on Ayar 29 and after 2 months 6 days appears W on Abu 5

Year 13 inferior Venus sets on Nisan 25 and after 12 days rises on Ayar 7

Year 13 superior Venus vanishes E on Tebetu 23 and after 2 months 3 days appears W on Adar 26

Year 14 inferior Venus sets on Arahsamnu 24 and after 3 days rises on Arahsamnu 27

Year 15 superior Venus vanishes E on Abu 26 and after 2 months appears W on Tashritu 26

Year 16 inferior Venus sets on Dumuzi 5 and after 16 days rises on Dumuzi 21

Year 16 superior Venus vanishes E on Adar 24 and after 2 months 15 days appears W on Simanu 9

Year 17 inferior Venus sets on Adar 8 and after 3 days rises on Adar 11

Year 18 superior Venus vanishes E on Arahsamnu 13 and after 1 month 25 days appears W on Tebetu 8

Year 19 inferior Venus sets on II Ululu 20 and after 17 days rises on Tashritu 8

Year 20 superior Venus vanishes E on Simanu 25 and after 2 months 6 days appears W on Ululu 1

Year 21 inferior Venus sets on Nisan 22 and after 11 days rises on Ayar 3

Year 21 superior Venus vanishes E on Tebetu 19 and after 2 months 3 days appears W on Adar 22

 See also

 Notes

  1. ^ Enuma Anu Enlil Tablet 63
  2. ^ Problems of atmospheric refraction were addressed by V.G. Gurzadyan, “The Venus Tablet and refractionPDF (66.5 KiB)Akkadica 124 (2003), pp 13-17, with bibliography.

 External links

Further reading

  • Huber, P.J. 1982. Astronomical Dating of Babylon I and Ur III (Malibu: Getty).
  • Reiner, Erica and David Pingree 1975. Babylonian Planetary Omens. Part 1. The Venus Tablet of Ammisaduqa, (Malibu: Getty). The “fundamental edition”, superseding Langdon et al. 1928 (Walker 1984). ISBN 0-890030103
  • Walker, C.B.F. 1984. “Notes on the Venus Tablet of Ammisaduqa”, Journal of Cuneiform Studies 36.1 pp. 64-66.
  • Gurzadyan, V.G. 2000. “On the Astronomical Records and Babylonian ChronologyPDF“, Akkadica, vol.119-120, p.

 ¡Carpe Diem¡

Filed under: Exposiciones,General,H. Próximo Oriente

Trackback Uri


Trackbacks/Pingbacks



Dejar un comentario

Debe identificarse para escribir un comentario.