19 nov 08

Zincirli y la creencia en el alma

Zincirli (Sam’al)

Sam’al ( Zincirli)  fue la capital de un reino neohitita desde el siglo X al VII aproximadamente, situado

 ( 37°06’9 N – 36°40’42 E Google Earth location ) en el sudeste de Turquía, hacia Siria.Fue uno de los pequeños Estados (Ciudad-Estado) que sobrevivieron a las destrucciones del Bronce Final(“Pueblos del Mar)

Image sources:
Kurt Bittel, Die Hethiter, Beck, München 1976, ISBN 3406030246.
Bora Bilgin, 2003, 2006.
Ekrem Akurgal, The Hattian and Hittite Civilizations, KTB, Ankara, 2001.
Tayfun Bilgin, 2006

 It was first excavated by German Oriental Society between 1888 and 1902. They found a heavily fortified citadel within a larger double walled fortification with 100 bastions and three gates. Excavations revealed giant statues of lions, numerous orthostats and inscriptions in Aramaic, Phoenician, Luwian, and Akkadian. Most of the finds are in Istanbul Archeology Museum and Vorderasiatisches Museum in Berlin

Un monumento descubierto en el curso de las recientes excavaciones, una estela de piedra, revela que uno de sus habitantes creía que , tras ser incinerado su cuerpo, su alma viviría en aquella estela, como indica la inscripción.

“The stele is in almost pristine condition. It is unique in its combination of pictorial and textual features and thus provides an important addition to our knowledge of ancient language and culture,” said David Schloen, Associate Professor at the Oriental Institute and Director of the University’s Neubauer Expedition to Zincirli.

Schloen will present the Kuttamuwa stele to a scholarly audience at the meeting of the American Schools of Oriental Research on Nov. 22 in Boston, the major annual conference for Middle Eastern archaeology. Dennis Pardee, Professor of Near Eastern Languages and Civilization at the University of Chicago, will present his translation of the stele’s 13-line inscription the following day at the annual meeting of the Society of Biblical Literature, also in Boston, in a session on “Paleographical Studies in the Near East.”


“Found: An Ancient Monument to the Soul “
(New York Times, 11.17.2008)



A funerary monument recovered in southeastern Turkey reveals that people who lived in an important Iron Age city there believed the soul was separate from the body. They also believed the soul lived in the funerary slab.
(Photo: Eudora Struble, University of Chicago)

“Iron Age Monument to the Soul Discovered in Turkey”
(National Geographic, 11.18.2008)

man archaeologists first excavated the 100-acre site in the 1890s and unearthed massive city walls, gates and palaces. A number of royal inscriptions and other finds are now on display in museums in Istanbul and Berlin. Schloen and his team from the University of Chicago have excavated Zincirli for two months annually since 2006.

The stele was discovered last summer


                                                            Estela de Kuttamuwa

in a small room that had been converted into a mortuary shrine for the royal official Kuttamuwa, self-described in the inscription as a “servant” of King Panamuwa of the eighth century B.C. It was found in the outer part of the walled city in a domestic area—most likely the house of Kuttamuwa himself—far from the royal palaces, where inscriptions had previously been found.

The inscription reads in part:

“I, Kuttamuwa, servant of Panamuwa, am the one who oversaw the production of this stele for myself while still living. I placed it in an eternal chamber(?) and established a feast at this chamber(?): a bull for [the storm-god] Hadad, … a ram for [the sun-god] Shamash, … and a ram for my soul that is in this stele. …”

It was written in a script derived from the Phoenician alphabet and in a local West Semitic dialect similar to Aramaic and Hebrew. It is of keen interest to linguists as well as biblical scholars and religious historians because it comes from a kingdom contemporary with ancient Israel that shared a similar language and cultural features.

The finding sheds a striking new light on Iron Age beliefs about the afterlife. In this case, it was the belief that the enduring identity or “soul” of the deceased inhabited the monument on which his image was carved and on which his final words were recorded.

The stele was set against a stone wall in the corner of the small room, with its protruding tenon or “tab” still inserted into a slot in a flagstone platform. A handsome, bearded figure, Kuttamuwa is depicted on the stele wearing a tasseled cap and fringed cloak and raising a cup of wine in his right hand. He is seated on a chair in front of a table laden with food, symbolizing the pleasant afterlife he expected to enjoy. Beside him is his inscription, elegantly carved in raised relief, enjoining upon his descendants the regular duty of bringing food for his soul. Indeed, in front of the stele were remains of food offerings and fragments of polished stone bowls of the type depicted on Kuttamuwa’s table.

According to Schloen, the stele vividly demonstrates that Iron Age Sam’al, located in the border zone between Anatolia and Syria, inherited both Semitic and Indo-European cultural traditions. Kuttamuwa and his king, Panamuwa, had non-Semitic names, reflecting the migration of Indo-European speakers into the region centuries earlier under the Hittite Empire based in central Anatolia (modern Turkey), which had conquered the region.

But by the eighth century B.C., they were speaking the local West Semitic dialect and were fully integrated into local culture. Kuttumuwa’s inscription shows a fascinating mixture of non-Semitic and Semitic cultural elements, including a belief in the enduring human soul—which did not inhabit the bones of the deceased, as in traditional Semitic thought, but inhabited his stone monument, possibly because the remains of the deceased were cremated. Cremation was considered to be abhorrent in the Old Testament and in traditional West Semitic culture, but there is archaeological evidence for Indo-European-style cremation in neighboring Iron Age sites, although not yet at Zincirli itself.


In future excavation campaignseam, the Zincitli generously supported by University trustee Joseph Neubauer and his wife Jeanette, plans to excavate large areas of the site in order to understand the social and economic organization of the city and its cultural development over the centuries. Schloen and his associate director Amir Fink hope to illuminate Iron Age culture more widely through this richly documented ancient city.

http://foroterraeantiqvae.ning.com/profiles/blogs/hallan-pruebas-escritas: La noticia en español

Reyes de Sam’al
Gabbar, contemporéneo de  Salmanassar III (858-824)
Bamah, hijo de Gabbar
Chajan, hijo de Bamah (antes de 830)
Kilamuwa, hijo de  Chajan (h. 830 a.C.)
Panammuwa I.
Panammuwa II, hijo de Qaral (h. 750)
Usurpador, h. 738
Panammû II († 732)
Pammuhûs, 732-?

El dios de la tormenta( Hilani J). ZIncirli,Turquía

Estela funeraria anepígrafa,Zincirli,s.VIII a.C. Museo de Berlin, sg.Akurgal

Procesión de los funcionarios del palacio.Zincirli, Hilani III, s.VIII a.C.,Estambul, sg.B.Bilgin

El portador de la cabra, Zincirli,Hall norte.

Inscripción  fenicia de Zincirli,

Inscripción fenica del rey Kilamuwa,( h.830 a.C.), Hilani J, ZIncirli

El dios guerrero Teshub, ZIncirli

Diosa con espejo (¿Kubaba?). Zincirli.

                           Dios de la Tormenta, Zincirli.



El rey Kilanuwa y su sirviente, s.IX, Museo de Estambul



Great Hittite
(Empire period)
1480 to 1200 BCE

Afyon *+
Altınyayla *
Çağdın *
Emirgazi *
Ermenek +
Karga *
Kayalıpınar *
Keben +
Köylütolu *
Tell Açana*
Yağrı *

Late Hittite
(Neo-Hittite period)
1200 to 712 BCE


Aksaray *
Andaval *
Bahçeköy *
Bor *
Burunkaya +
Çiftlik *
Eğriköy *
Erkilet *
Karadağ +
Kayseri *
Keşlik Yayla *
Kızıldağ +
Kululu *
Kurubel *
Niğde *
Porsuk *
Sultanhanı *
Tekirderbent *
Veliisa *


Aleppo *
Birecik *
Boybeypınarı *
Çime *
Domuztepe *
Hama *
K.Maraş *
Karkamış *
Kelekli *
Kırçoğlu *
Körkün *



Arslantepe *
Darende *
Havuzköy *
İspekçür *
Izgın *
Karahöyük *
Palanga *


Mesopotamia, Assyrian, Stele of Zincirli, 7th century BCE, height 3.46 m, Near-Eastern Museum, Berlin. See stele.   

Inscripción en arameo, Zincirli

Semitic language originally spoken by the ancient Aramaeans. The earliest Aramaic texts are inscriptions in an alphabet of Phoenician origin found in the northern Levant dating from c. 850 to 600 BC. The period 600 – 200 BC saw a dramatic expansion of Aramaic, leading to the development of a standard form known as Imperial Aramaic. In later centuries, as “Standard Literary Aramaic,” it became a linguistic model. Late (or Classical) Aramaic (c. AD 200 – 1200) has an abundant literature, both in Syriac and in Mandaic (see Mandaeanism). With the rise of Islam, Arabic rapidly supplanted Aramaic as a vernacular in South Asia. Modern Aramaic (Neo-Aramaic) comprises West Neo-Aramaic, spoken in three villages northeast of Damascus, Syria, and East Neo-Aramaic, a group of languages spoken in scattered settlements of Jews and Christians in southeastern Turkey, northern Iraq, and northwestern Iran, and by modern Mandaeans in the Shatt Al-’Arab. Since c. 1900 persecution has forced most contemporary East Neo-Aramaic-speakers, who number several hundred thousand, into diaspora communities around the world.

North Semitic language, similar to Hebrew and written with the same square script (see Alphabet). The first Arameans seem to have lived in the southeastern part of Mesopotamia in the area of Ur, from where Abraham’s family originated (Gen.11:31). The tribal name Kasdim (“Ur of Kasdim”) is shown by Akkadian documents to denote speakers of Aramaic, who are called in Akkadian “Kaldu,” and later known as Chaldeans. Aramaic is found in inscriptions from Sam’al, now Zendjirli, in the far north across the Turkish frontier, down to Syria, where Aramean states existed during the period of the First Temple. In Mesopotamia, the Aramaic language spread, partly because it was not written in cuneiform script; the latter was hard to learn and required tablets which needed to be heated and took up space, while Aramaic was written with pen and ink. In the course of time, Aramaic became a link between the multilingual populations of Mesopotamia and was taken over by the Persians, who ruled the Near East after 529 BCE and used Aramaic for their correspondence. In the Bible, parts of the books of Daniel and Ezra are in Aramaic. Among Jews, Aramaic was employed in the Second Temple period as an international language for contracts, and has remained so until now as the text for marriage (Ketubbah) and Divorce (get) documents. It was also used for the mystical texts among the Dead Sea Scrolls. There is a controversy whether, at the time, Aramaic replaced Hebrew as the spoken language among the lower classes of the Jewish population of Palestine. This was argued especially by Christian scholars, who assumed that the Gospels were originally written in Aramaic. As evidence, they cited a dozen words quoted in the New Testament, half of which could equally well be Mishnaic Hebrew. It is probable that Jesus, having grown up in Galilee, would have known Aramaic, but since, according to the Gospels, he was expert in the Bible, he must have known Hebrew. This allows no conclusion regarding the language of his preaching. The Targum which accompanied the reading of the Law was an Aramaic translation of the Bible and also a commentary. It was given in Aramaic in order to differentiate between the reading and the comment, lest listeners conclude that the comments were also written in the text. This is confirmed by the later Palestinian Targums (translations of the Bible into Aramaic) which inserted much additional information. At a time when texts could be obtained only in handwritten copies, and only a minority of the people could read, it was important to make clear whether a text was the original or a commentary, and this could be indicated by changing the language. This probably applies to the use of Aramaic in the Palestinian Talmud. It is more probable that the discussions in the Babylonian Talmud were originally held in Aramaic, though in an educated form of that language, different from those sayings introduced by “as people say,” which contain what appears to be a reproduction of ordinary speech. The use of Aramaic in Mesopotamia diminished in the geonic period (600-1040 CE). After the Muslim conquest in the seventh century, Arabic replaced the local Aramaic (Syriac), also among Jews. Several parts of the Liturgy are recited in Aramaic to this day, the best known being the Kaddish; Kol Nidré, at the start of the Day of Atonement is said in Aramaic in most communities. Some sections of the Passover Haggadah, such as HA LAḤMA ANYA are also in Aramaic. The most outstanding field for the use of Aramaic in the Middle Ages was in Kabbalah, beginning with the Zohar (towards the end of the 13th century CE), and many Jewish mystical works were written in Aramaic. Aramaic, especially that of the Babylonian Talmud, has played a role in the formation of the modern Hebrew vocabulary. A North Semitic language, similar to Hebrew and written in the same square script. It emerged as the lingua franca of the countries along the commercial routes of the Fertile Crescent in about the 6th century B.C. Aramaic became the vernacular of Palestine and can be found in the OT (Ezra 4:8-6:18; 7:12-26; Jer 10:11; Dan 2:4-7:28 are written in Aramaic). It was still the spoken language in the days of Jesus and those of his utterances preserved in the original are in Aramaic (Matt 27:46; Mark 5:41). Many scholars maintain that the Greek gospels were composed on the basis of oral traditions originally in Aramaic.

Filed under: H. Próximo Oriente,HISTORIA ANTIGUA

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